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Rob Gonsalves Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Kirk Aleck Division of Genetics, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Dorothee Newbern Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Gabriel Shaibi Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Chirag Kapadia Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Oliver Oatman Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Summary

Single-minded homolog 1 (SIM1) is a transcription factor that plays a role in the development of both the hypothalamus and pituitary. SIM1 gene mutations are known to cause obesity in humans, and chromosomal deletions encompassing SIM1 and other genes necessary for pituitary development can cause a Prader–Willi-like syndrome with obesity and hypopituitarism. There have been no reported cases of hypopituitarism linked to a single SIM1 mutation. A 21-month-old male presented to endocrinology clinic with excessive weight gain and severe obesity. History was also notable for excessive drinking and urination. Endocrine workup revealed central hypothyroidism, partial diabetes insipidus, and central adrenal insufficiency. Genetic evaluation revealed a novel mutation in the SIM1 gene. No other genetic abnormalities to account for his obesity and hypopituitarism were identified. While we cannot definitively state this mutation is pathogenic, it is notable that SIM1 plays a role in the development of all three of the patient’s affected hormone axes. He is now 6 years old and remains on treatment for his pituitary hormone deficiencies and continues to exhibit excessive weight gain despite lifestyle interventions.

Learning points:

  • Mutations in SIM1 are a well-recognized cause of monogenic human obesity, and there have been case reports of Prader–Willi-like syndrome and hypopituitarism in patients with chromosomal deletions that contain the SIM1 gene.

  • SIM1 is expressed during the development of the hypothalamus, specifically in neuroendocrine lineages that give rise to the hormones oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin.

  • Pituitary testing should be considered in patients with severe obesity and a known genetic abnormality affecting the SIM1 gene, particularly in the pediatric population.

Open access
Baris Akinci Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

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Rasimcan Meral Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Diana Rus Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Rita Hench Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Adam H Neidert Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Frank DiPaola Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Maria Westerhoff Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Simeon I Taylor Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Elif A Oral Brehm Center for Diabetes Research and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Summary

A patient with atypical partial lipodystrophy who had a transient initial response to metreleptin experienced acute worsening of her metabolic state when neutralizing antibodies against metreleptin appeared. Because her metabolic status continued to deteriorate, a therapeutic trial with melanocortin-4 receptor agonist setmelanotide, that is believed to function downstream from leptin receptor in the leptin signaling system, was undertaken in an effort to improve her metabolic status for the first time in a patient with lipodystrophy. To achieve this, a compassionate use (investigational new drug application; IND) was initiated (NCT03262610). Glucose control, body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and MRI, and liver fat by proton density fat fraction were monitored. Daily hunger scores were assessed by patient filled questionnaires. Although there was a slight decrease in hunger scales and visceral fat, stimulating melanocortin-4 receptor by setmelanotide did not result in any other metabolic benefit such as improvement of hypertriglyceridemia or diabetes control as desired. Targeting melanocortin-4 receptor to regulate energy metabolism in this setting was not sufficient to obtain a significant metabolic benefit. However, complex features of our case make it difficult to generalize these observations to all cases of lipodystrophy. It is still possible that melanocortin-4 receptor agonistic action may offer some therapeutic benefits in leptin-deficient patients.

Learning points:

  • A patient with atypical lipodystrophy with an initial benefit with metreleptin therapy developed neutralizing antibodies to metreleptin (Nab-leptin), which led to substantial worsening in metabolic control. The neutralizing activity in her serum persisted for longer than 3 years.

  • Whether the worsening in her metabolic state was truly caused by the development of Nab-leptin cannot be fully ascertained, but there was a temporal relationship. The experience noted in our patient at least raises the possibility for concern for substantial metabolic worsening upon emergence and persistence of Nab-leptin. Further studies of cases where Nab-leptin is detected and better assay systems to detect and characterize Nab-leptin are needed.

  • The use of setmelanotide, a selective MC4R agonist targeting specific neurons downstream from the leptin receptor activation, was not effective in restoring metabolic control in this complex patient with presumed diminished leptin action due to Nab-leptin.

  • Although stimulating the MC4R pathway was not sufficient to obtain a significant metabolic benefit in lowering triglycerides and helping with her insulin resistance as was noted with metreleptin earlier, there was a mild reduction in reported food intake and appetite.

  • Complex features of our case make it difficult to generalize our observation to all leptin-deficient patients. It is possible that some leptin-deficient patients (especially those who need primarily control of food intake) may still theoretically benefit from MC4R agonistic action, and further studies in carefully selected patients may help to tease out the differential pathways of metabolic regulation by the complex network of leptin signaling system.

Open access
Albert S Kim Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
The University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Rashida Hakeem Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Institute for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

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Azaliya Abdullah Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Institute for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

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Amanda J Hooper School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Royal Perth Hospital and Fiona Stanley Hospital Network, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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Michel C Tchan The University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Genetic Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

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Thushari I Alahakoon The University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Institute for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

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Christian M Girgis Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
The University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia

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Summary

A 19-year-old female presented at 25-weeks gestation with pancreatitis. She was found to have significant hypertriglyceridaemia in context of an unconfirmed history of familial hypertriglyceridaemia. This was initially managed with fasting and insulin infusion and she was commenced on conventional interventions to lower triglycerides, including a fat-restricted diet, heparin, marine oil and gemfibrozil. Despite these measures, the triglyceride levels continued to increase as she progressed through the pregnancy, and it was postulated that she had an underlying lipoprotein lipase defect. Therefore, a multidisciplinary decision was made to commence therapeutic plasma exchange to prevent further episodes of pancreatitis. She underwent a total of 13 sessions of plasma exchange, and labour was induced at 37-weeks gestation in which a healthy female infant was delivered. There was a rapid and significant reduction in triglycerides in the 48 h post-delivery. Subsequent genetic testing of hypertriglyceridaemia genes revealed a missense mutation of the LPL gene. Fenofibrate and rosuvastatin was commenced to manage her hypertriglyceridaemia postpartum and the importance of preconception counselling for future pregnancies was discussed. Hormonal changes in pregnancy lead to an overall increase in plasma lipids to ensure adequate nutrient delivery to the fetus. These physiological changes become problematic, where a genetic abnormality in lipid metabolism exists and severe complications such as pancreatitis can arise. Available therapies for gestational hypertriglyceridaemia rely on augmentation of LPL activity. Where there is an underlying LPL defect, these therapies are ineffective and removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via plasma exchange should be considered.

Learning points:

  • Hormonal changes in pregnancy, mediated by progesterone,oestrogen and human placental lactogen, lead to a two- to three-fold increase in serum triglyceride levels.

  • Pharmacological intervention for management of gestational hypertriglyceridaemia rely on the augmentation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity to enhance catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  • Genetic mutations affecting the LPL gene can lead to severe hypertriglyceridaemia.

  • Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an effective intervention for the management of severe gestational hypertriglyceridaemia and should be considered in cases where there is an underlying LPL defect.

  • Preconception counselling and discussion regarding contraception is of paramount importance in women with familial hypertriglyceridaemia.

Open access
N F Lenders Diabetes and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
St Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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J R Greenfield Diabetes and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
St Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Summary

Adrenal oncocytomas are rare tumours, with only approximately 160 cases reported in the literature. We report the use of urinary steroid profiling as part of their diagnostic evaluation and prognostication. A 45-year-old woman presented with clinical features of hyperandrogenism. Serum biochemistry confirmed androgen excess and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 3.2 cm adrenal tumour with density 39 HU pre-contrast. Urine steroid profiling showed elevated tetrahydro-11 deoxycortisol (THS), which is associated with adrenal malignancy. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed, and histopathology diagnosed adrenal oncocytoma. Serum and urinary biochemistry resolved post-operatively and remained normal at 1-year follow-up.

Learning points:

  • Differential diagnosis of adrenal masses is challenging. Current techniques for differentiating between tumour types lack sensitivity and specificity.

  • 24-h urinary steroid profiling is a useful tool for reflecting steroid output from adrenal glands. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of urinary steroid metabolites has sensitivity and specificity of 90% for diagnosing adrenocortical carcinoma.

  • Adrenal oncocytoma are rare tumours. Differentiating between benign and malignant types is difficult. Data guiding prognostication and management are sparse.

Open access
Masato Kotani Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Research Support Center, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
Asahina Shinryoujo, Fujieda, Shizuoka, Japan

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Naohisa Tamura Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Research Support Center, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

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Tatsuhide Inoue Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

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Issei Tanaka Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

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Summary

Type B insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to the insulin receptor. We present a 57-year-old male admitted to a hospital due to body weight loss of 16 kg and hyperglycemia of 13.6 mmol/L. He was diagnosed with type B insulin resistance syndrome because the anti-insulin receptor antibodies were positive. We informed him that some hyperglycemic cases of this syndrome had been reported to be spontaneously remitted in 5 years, and he did not agree to be treated with high-dose glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive agents due to his concern for their adverse effects such as hyperglycemia and immunosuppression. He chose to be treated with insulin and voglibose, but fair glucose control could not be obtained. Six years later, he agreed to be treated with low-dose glucocorticoids practicable in outpatient settings. One milligram per day of betamethasone was tried orally and reduced gradually according to the values of glycated hemoglobin. After 30 months of glucocorticoid treatment, the anti-insulin receptor antibodies became undetectable and his fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin were normalized. This case suggests that low-dose glucocorticoids could be a choice to treat type B insulin resistance syndrome in outpatient settings.

Learning points:

  • Type B insulin resistance syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disease for insulin receptors.

  • This case suggested the possibility of long-lasting, low-dose glucocorticoid therapy for the syndrome as an alternative for high-dose glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive agents.

  • Since the prevalence of autoimmune nephritis is high in the syndrome, a delay of immunosuppressive therapy initiation might result in an exacerbation of nephropathy.

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Marcela Rodríguez Flores Obesity and Eating Disorders Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán

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Ruth Carmina Cruz Soto Nutrition and Obesity Center, Centro Médico ABC

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Verónica Vázquez Velázquez Obesity and Eating Disorders Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán

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Reina Ruth Soriano Cortés Obesity and Eating Disorders Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán

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Carlos Aguilar Salinas Metabolic Diseases Research Unit, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico
Endocrinology and Metabolism Department, Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Tec Salud, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico

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Eduardo García García Obesity and Eating Disorders Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán

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Summary

In patients with gastric bypass (GB), high glucose variability (GV) and hypoglycemia have been demonstrated, which could impact the metabolic status and eating behavior. We describe the glucose patterns determined through continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in two patients with >5 years follow-up after GB and significant weight recovery, who reported hypoglycemic symptoms that interfered with daily activities, and their response to a nutritional and psycho-educative prescription. Case 1: A 40-year-old woman without pre-surgical type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and normal HbA1c, in whom CGM showed high GV and hypoglycemic episodes that did not correlate with the time of hypoglycemic symptoms. Her GV reduced after prescription of a diet with low glycemic index and modification of meal patterns. Case 2: A 48-year-old male with pre-surgical diagnosis of T2DM and current normal HbA1c, reported skipping meals. The CGM showed high GV, 15% of time in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemic spikes. After prescription of a low glycemic index diet, his GV increased and time in hypoglycemia decreased. Through the detailed self-monitoring needed for CGM, we discovered severe anxiety symptoms, consumption of simple carbohydrates and lack of meal structure. He was referred for more intensive psychological counseling. In conclusion, CGM can detect disorders in glucose homeostasis derived both from the mechanisms of bariatric surgery, as well as the patient’s behaviors and mental health, improving decision-making during follow-up.

Learning points:

  • High glycemic variability is frequent in patients operated with gastric bypass.

  • Diverse eating patterns, such as prolonged fasting and simple carbohydrate ingestion, and mental health disorders, including anxiety, can promote and be confused with worsened hypoglycemia.

  • CGM requires a detailed record of food ingested that can be accompanied by associated factors (circumstances, eating patterns, emotional symptoms). This allows the detection of particular behaviors and amount of dietary simple carbohydrates to guide recommendations provided within clinical care of these patients.

Open access
Michelle Maher Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Mohammed Faraz Rafey Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Helena Griffin Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Katie Cunningham Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Francis M Finucane Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Summary

A 45-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (HbA1c 87 mmol/mol) despite 100 units of insulin per day and severe obesity (BMI 40.2 kg/m2) was referred for bariatric intervention. He declined bariatric surgery or GLP1 agonist therapy. Initially, his glycaemic control improved with dietary modification and better adherence to insulin therapy, but he gained weight. We started a low-energy liquid diet, with 2.2 L of semi-skimmed milk (equivalent to 1012 kcal) per day for 8 weeks (along with micronutrient, salt and fibre supplementation) followed by 16 weeks of phased reintroduction of a normal diet. His insulin was stopped within a week of starting this programme, and over 6 months, he lost 20.6 kg and his HbA1c normalised. However, 1 year later, despite further weight loss, his HbA1c deteriorated dramatically, requiring introduction of linagliptin and canagliflozin, with good response. Five years after initial presentation, his BMI remains elevated but improved at 35.5 kg/m2 and his glycaemic control is excellent with a HbA1c of 50 mmol/mol and he is off insulin therapy. Whether semi-skimmed milk is a safe, effective substrate for carefully selected patients with severe obesity complicated by T2DM remains to be determined. Such patients would need frequent monitoring by an experienced multidisciplinary team.

Learning points:

  • Meal replacement programmes are an emerging therapeutic strategy to allow severely obese type 2 diabetes patients to achieve clinically impactful weight loss.

  • Using semi-skimmed milk as a meal replacement substrate might be less costly than commercially available programmes, but is likely to require intensive multidisciplinary bariatric clinical follow-up.

  • For severely obese adults with poor diabetes control who decline bariatric surgery or GLP1 agonist therapy, a milk-based meal replacement programme may be an option.

  • Milk-based meal replacement in patients with insulin requiring type 2 diabetes causes rapid and profound reductions in insulin requirements, so rigorous monitoring of glucose levels by patients and their clinicians is necessary.

  • In carefully selected and adequately monitored patients, the response to oral antidiabetic medications may help to differentiate between absolute and relative insulin deficiency.

Open access
H Joshi Department of Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, UK

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M Hikmat Department of Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, UK

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A P Devadass Department of Histopathology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK

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S O Oyibo Department of Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, UK

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S V Sagi Department of Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, UK

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Summary

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory condition which can affect various organs including the pituitary gland. The true annual incidence of this condition remains widely unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether IgG4 antibodies are causative or the end result of a trigger. With no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis remains a challenge. Additionally, there is a wide differential diagnosis. We report a case of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis in a young man with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Learning points:

  • IgG4-related hypophysitis is part of a spectrum of IgG4-related diseases.

  • Clinical manifestations result from anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies with or without diabetes insipidus, which can be temporary or permanent.

  • A combination of clinical, radiological, serological and histological evidence with careful interpretation is required to make the diagnosis.

  • Tissue biopsy remains the gold standard investigation.

  • Disease monitoring and long-term management of this condition is a challenge as relapses occur frequently.

Open access
Anna Tortora Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy

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Domenico La Sala Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy

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Mario Vitale Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy

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Summary

Reduced intestinal absorption of levothyroxine (LT4) is the most common cause of failure to achieve an adequate therapeutic target in hypothyroid patients under replacement therapy. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with autoimmune hypothyroidism previously well-replaced with tablet LT4 who became unexpectedly no more euthyroid. At presentation, the patient reported the onset of acute gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by nausea, loss of appetite, flatulence, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, associated with increase of thyrotropin levels (TSH: 11 mIU/mL). Suspecting a malabsorption disease, a thyroxine solid-to-liquid formulation switch, at the same daily dose, was adopted to reach an optimal therapeutic target despite the gastrointestinal symptoms persistence. Oral LT4 solution normalized thyroid hormones. Further investigations diagnosed giardiasis, and antibiotic therapy was prescribed. This case report is compatible with a malabsorption syndrome caused by an intestinal parasite (Giardia lamblia). The reduced absorption of levothyroxine was resolved by LT4 oral solution.

Learning points:

  • The failure to adequately control hypothyroidism with oral levothyroxine is a common clinical problem.

  • Before increasing levothyroxine dose in a patient with hypothyroidism previously well-controlled with LT4 tablets but no more in appropriate therapeutic target, we suggest to investigate non adhesion to LT4 therapy, drug or food interference with levothyroxine absorption, intestinal infection, inflammatory intestinal disease, celiac disease, lactose intolerance, short bowel syndrome after intestinal or bariatric surgery, hepatic cirrhosis and congestive heart failure.

  • LT4 oral solution has a better absorptive profile than the tablet. In hypothyroid patients affected by malabsorption syndrome, switch of replacement therapy from tablet to liquid LT4 should be tested before increasing the dose of LT4.

Open access
Suguru Watanabe Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan
Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

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Jun Kido Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

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Mika Ogata Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan

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Kimitoshi Nakamura Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

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Tomoyuki Mizukami Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan

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Summary

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are the most severe acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). HHS is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis. A 14-year-old Japanese boy presented at the emergency room with lethargy, polyuria and polydipsia. He belonged to a baseball club team and habitually drank sugar-rich beverages daily. Three weeks earlier, he suffered from lassitude and developed polyuria and polydipsia 1 week later. He had been drinking more sugar-rich isotonic sports drinks (approximately 1000–1500 mL/day) than usual (approximately 500 mL/day). He presented with HHS (hyperglycemia (1010 mg/dL, HbA1c 12.3%) and mild hyperosmolality (313 mOsm/kg)) without acidosis (pH 7.360), severe ketosis (589 μmol/L) and ketonuria. He presented HHS in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with elevated glutamate decarboxylase antibody and islet antigen 2 antibody. Consuming beverages with high sugar concentrations caused hyperglycemia and further exacerbates thirst, resulting in further beverage consumption. Although he recovered from HHS following intensive transfusion and insulin treatment, he was significantly sensitive to insulin therapy. Even the appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels in patients with T1DM. We should therefore suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not those with obesity. Moreover, age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS. Specifically, drinking an excess of beverages rich in sugars represents a risk of HHS in juvenile/adolescent T1DM patients.

Learning points:

  • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis.

  • The discrimination between HHS of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in initial presentation is difficult.

  • Pediatrician should suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not obesity.

  • Age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS.

  • Children with T1DM are very sensitive to insulin treatment, and even appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels.

Open access