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Nicholas J Theis Dunedin School of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Toby Calvert Dunedin School of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Peter McIntyre Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Stephen P Robertson Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Benjamin J Wheeler Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Summary

Cantu syndrome, or hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, is a rare, autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. It is characterized by hypertrichosis, cardiac and skeletal anomalies and distinctive coarse facial features. We report a case where slowed growth velocity at 13 years led to identification of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. This adds to other reports of pituitary abnormalities in this condition and supports inclusion of endocrine monitoring in the clinical surveillance of patients with Cantu syndrome.

Learning points:

  • Cantu syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the ABCC9 and KCNJ8 genes, which result in gain of function of the SUR2 or Kir6.1 subunits of widely expressed KATP channels.

  • The main manifestations of the syndrome are varied, but most commonly include hypertrichosis, macrosomia, macrocephaly, coarse ‘acromegaloid’ facies, and a range of cardiac defects.

  • Anterior pituitary dysfunction may be implicated in this disorder, and we propose that routine screening should be included in the clinical and biochemical surveillance of patients with Cantu syndrome.

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Andrew R Tang Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Laura E Hinz Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Aneal Khan Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Gregory A Kline Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Summary

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene that encodes the renal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2c (NaPi-IIc). It may present as intermittent mild hypercalcemia which may attract initial diagnostic attention but appreciation of concomitant hypophosphatemia is critical for consideration of the necessary diagnostic approach. A 21-year-old woman was assessed by adult endocrinology for low bone mass. She initially presented age two with short stature, nephrocalcinosis and mild intermittent hypercalcemia with hypercalciuria. She had no evidence of medullary sponge kidney or Fanconi syndrome and no bone deformities, pain or fractures. She had recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis. In childhood, she was treated with hydrochlorothiazide to reduce urinary calcium. Upon review of prior investigations, she had persistent hypophosphatemia with phosphaturia, low PTH and a high-normal calcitriol. A diagnosis of HHRH was suspected and genetic testing confirmed a homozygous c.1483G>A (p.G495R) missense mutation of the SLC34A3 gene. She was started on oral phosphate replacement which normalized her serum phosphate, serum calcium and urine calcium levels over the subsequent 5 years. HHRH is an autosomal recessive condition that causes decreased renal reabsorption of phosphate, leading to hyperphosphaturia, hypophosphatemia and PTH-independent hypercalcemia due to the physiologic increase in calcitriol which also promotes hypercalciuria. Classically, patients present in childhood with bone pain, vitamin D-independent rickets and growth delay. This case of a SLC34A3 mutation illustrates the importance of investigating chronic hypophosphatemia even in the presence of other more common electrolyte abnormalities.

Learning points:

  • Hypophosphatemia is an important diagnostic clue that should not be ignored, even in the face of more common electrolyte disorders.

  • HHRH is a cause of PTH-independent hypophosphatemia that may also show hypercalcemia.

  • HHRH is a cause of hypophosphatemic nephrocalcinosis that should not be treated with calcitriol, unlike other congenital phosphate wasting syndromes.

  • Some congenital phosphate wasting disorders may not present until adolescence or early adulthood.

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Susan Ahern Division of Endocrinology, UCLA School of Medicine, Ventura, California, USA

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Mark Daniels Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California, USA

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Amrit Bhangoo Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California, USA

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Summary

In this case report, we present a novel mutation in Lim-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor, LHX3, manifesting as combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). This female patient was originally diagnosed in Egypt during infancy with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) requiring several blood transfusions. Around 10 months of age, she was diagnosed and treated for central hypothyroidism. It was not until she came to the United States around two-and-a-half years of age that she was diagnosed and treated for growth hormone deficiency. Her response to growth hormone replacement on linear growth and muscle tone were impressive. She still suffers from severe global development delay likely due to delay in treatment of congenital central hypothyroidism followed by poor access to reliable thyroid medications. Her diagnosis of DBA was not confirmed after genetic testing in the United States and her hemoglobin normalized with hormone replacement therapies. We will review the patient’s clinical course as well as a review of LHX3 mutations and the associated phenotype.

Learning points:

  • Describe an unusual presentation of undertreated pituitary hormone deficiencies in early life

  • Combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to a novel mutation in pituitary transcription factor, LHX3

  • Describe the clinical phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to LHX3 mutations

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M A Shehab Department of Endocrinology, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Tahseen Mahmood Department of Endocrinology, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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M A Hasanat Department of Endocrinology, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Md Fariduddin Department of Endocrinology, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Nazmul Ahsan Department of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain Department of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Md Shahdat Hossain Department of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Sharmin Jahan Department of Endocrinology, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Summary

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to the three-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) enzyme deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting with sexual precocity in a phenotypic male. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy presenting with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in a male. However, only a handful of cases of mosaic KS have been described in the literature. The co-existence of mosaic KS with CAH due to 3β-HSD enzyme deficiency portrays a unique diagnostic paradox where features of gonadal androgen deficiency are masked by simultaneous adrenal androgen excess. Here, we report a 7-year-old phenotypic male boy who, at birth presented with ambiguous genitalia, probably a microphallus with penoscrotal hypospadias. Later on, he developed accelerated growth with advanced bone age, premature pubarche, phallic enlargement and hyperpigmentation. Biochemically, the patient was proven to have CAH due to 3β-HSD deficiency. However, the co-existence of bilateral cryptorchidism made us to consider the possibility of hypogonadism as well, and it was further explained by concurrent existence of mosaic KS (47,XXY/46,XX). He was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement and underwent right-sided orchidopexy on a later date. He showed significant clinical and biochemical improvement on subsequent follow-up. However, the declining value of serum testosterone was accompanied by rising level of FSH thereby unmasking hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to mosaic KS. In future, we are planning to place him on androgen replacement as well.

Learning points:

  • Ambiguous genitalia with subsequent development of sexual precocity in a phenotypic male points towards some unusual varieties of CAH.

  • High level of serum testosterone, adrenal androgen, plasma ACTH and low basal cortisol are proof of CAH, whereas elevated level of 17-OH pregnenolone is biochemical marker of 3β-HSD enzyme deficiency.

  • Final diagnosis can be obtained with sequencing of HSD3B2 gene showing various mutations.

  • Presence of bilateral cryptorchidism in such a patient may be due to underlying hypogonadism.

  • Karyotyping in such patient may rarely show mosaic KS (47,XXY/46,XX) and there might be unmasking of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism resulting from adrenal androgen suppression from glucocorticoid treatment.

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Philip D Oddie Medical School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Benjamin B Albert Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

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Paul L Hofman Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Starship Children’s Health, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand

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Craig Jefferies Starship Children’s Health, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand
Starship Children’s Health, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand

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Stephen Laughton Starship Children’s Health, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand

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Philippa J Carter Starship Children’s Health, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand

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Summary

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) during childhood is a rare malignant tumor that frequently results in glucocorticoid and/or androgen excess. When there are signs of microscopic or macroscopic residual disease, adjuvant therapy is recommended with mitotane, an adrenolytic and cytotoxic drug. In addition to the anticipated side effect of adrenal insufficiency, mitotane is known to cause gynecomastia and hypothyroidism in adults. It has never been reported to cause precocious puberty. A 4-year-old girl presented with a 6-week history of virilization and elevated androgen levels and 1-year advancement in bone age. Imaging revealed a right adrenal mass, which was subsequently surgically excised. Histology revealed ACC with multiple unfavorable features, including high mitotic index, capsular invasion and atypical mitoses. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with mitotane, cisplatin, etoposide and doxorubicin. She experienced severe gastrointestinal side effects and symptomatic adrenal insufficiency, which occurred despite physiological-dose corticosteroid replacement. She also developed hypothyroidism that responded to treatment with levothyroxine and peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) with progressive breast development and rapidly advancing bone age. Five months after discontinuing mitotane, her adrenal insufficiency persisted and she developed secondary central precocious puberty (CPP). This case demonstrates the diverse endocrine complications associated with mitotane therapy, which contrast with the presentation of ACC itself. It also provides the first evidence that the known estrogenic effect of mitotane can manifest as PPP.

Learning points:

  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an important differential diagnosis for virilization in young children

  • Mitotane is a chemotherapeutic agent that is used to treat adrenocortical carcinoma and causes adrenal necrosis

  • Mitotane is an endocrine disruptor. In addition to the intended effect of adrenal insufficiency, it can cause hypothyroidism, with gynecomastia also reported in adults.

  • Patients taking mitotane require very high doses of hydrocortisone replacement therapy because mitotane interferes with steroid metabolism. This effect persists after mitotane therapy is completed

  • In our case, mitotane caused peripheral precocious puberty, possibly through its estrogenic effect.

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Syed Ali Imran Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Khaled A Aldahmani Division of Endocrinology, Tawam Hospial, Al-Ain, UAE

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Lynette Penney Department of Pediatrics, Tawam Hospial, Al-Ain, UAE

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Sidney E Croul Department of Pathology, Tawam Hospial, Al-Ain, UAE

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David B Clarke Department of Neurosurgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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David M Collier Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Donato Iacovazzo Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Márta Korbonits Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Summary

Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy.

Learning points:

  • Typical presentation for a patient with AIP mutation with excess growth and eunuchoid proportions.

  • Unusual, previously not described AIP variant with loss of the stop codon.

  • Phenocopy may occur in families with a disease-causing germline mutation.

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Nandini Shankara Narayana Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Anne-Maree Kean Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Lisa Ewans Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Thomas Ohnesorg Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Katie L Ayers Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Geoff Watson Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Arthur Vasilaras Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Andrew H Sinclair Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Stephen M Twigg Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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David J Handelsman ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Summary

46,XX disorders of sexual development (DSDs) occur rarely and result from disruptions of the genetic pathways underlying gonadal development and differentiation. We present a case of a young phenotypic male with 46,XX SRY-negative ovotesticular DSD resulting from a duplication upstream of SOX9 presenting with a painful testicular mass resulting from ovulation into an ovotestis. We present a literature review of ovulation in phenotypic men and discuss the role of SRY and SOX9 in testicular development, including the role of SOX9 upstream enhancer region duplication in female-to-male sex reversal.

Learning points:

  • In mammals, the early gonad is bipotent and can differentiate into either a testis or an ovary. SRY is the master switch in testis determination, responsible for differentiation of the bipotent gonad into testis.

  • SRY activates SOX9 gene, SOX9 as a transcription factor is the second major gene involved in male sex determination. SOX9 drives the proliferation of Sertoli cells and activates AMH/MIS repressing the ovary. SOX9 is sufficient to induce testis formation and can substitute for SRY function.

  • Assessing karyotype and then determination of the presence or absence of Mullerian structures are necessary serial investigations in any case of DSD, except for mixed gonadal dysgenesis identified by karyotype alone.

  • Treatment is ideal in a multidisciplinary setting with considerations to genetic (implications to family and reproductive recurrence risk), psychological aspects (sensitive individualized counseling including patient gender identity and preference), endocrinological (hormone replacement), surgical (cosmetic, prophylactic gonadectomy) fertility preservation and reproductive opportunities and metabolic health (cardiovascular and bones).

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Durgesh Prasad Chaudhary BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

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Tshristi Rijal BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

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Kunal Kishor Jha Critical Care Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA

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Harpreet Saluja RCSI, Busaiteen, Bahrain

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Summary

Combined pituitary hormonal deficiency (CPHD) is a rare disease that results from mutations in genes coding for transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of pituitary cells. PROP1 gene mutations are one of the etiological diagnoses of congenital panhypopituitarism, however symptoms vary depending on phenotypic expression. We present a case of psychosis in a 36-year-old female with congenital panhypopituitarism who presented with paranoia, flat affect and ideas of reference without a delirious mental state, which resolved with hormone replacement and antipsychotics. Further evaluation revealed that she had a homozygous mutation of PROP1 gene. In summary, compliance with hormonal therapy for patients with hypopituitarism appears to be effective for the prevention and treatment of acute psychosis symptoms.

Learning points:

  • Patients with PROP1 gene mutation may present with psychosis with no impairment in orientation and memory.

  • There is currently inadequate literature on this topic, and further study on the possible mechanisms of psychosis as a result of endocrine disturbance is required.

  • Compliance with hormonal therapy for patients with hypopituitarism appears to be effective for prevention and treatment of acute psychosis symptoms.

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A Deeb Paediatric Endocrinology Department, Mafraq Hospital, PO Box 2951, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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O Afandi Medical School, Gulf University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

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S Attia Paediatric Endocrinology Department, Mafraq Hospital, PO Box 2951, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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A El Fatih Biochemistry Laboratory Department, Shaikh Khalifa Medical Center, Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Summary

3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 genes. It is characterised by growth failure, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Data in the literature show variable efficacy of GH in the treatment of short stature. We report four Emirati siblings with the condition. The index case is a 10-year-old boy with characteristic features, including prenatal and postnatal growth failure, a triangular face, a long philtrum, full lips and prominent heels. Genetic testing confirmed a novel mutation (p.val88Ala) in the CUL7 gene. The parents are healthy, first-degree cousins with nine children, of whom two died in the first year of life with respiratory failure. Both had low birth weight and growth retardation. The boy's older sibling reached an adult height of 117 cm (−6.71 SDS). She was never treated with GH. He was started on GH treatment at 7 years of age, when his height was 94 cm (−5.3 SDS). 3-M syndrome should be considered in children with short stature who have associated dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. The diagnosis is more likely to occur in families that have a history of consanguinity and more than one affected sibling. Death in early infancy due to respiratory failure is another clue to the diagnosis, which might have a variable phenotype within a family. Genetic testing is important for confirming the diagnosis and for genetic counselling. GH treatment might be beneficial in improving stature in affected children.

Learning points

  • 3-M syndrome should be considered in families that have more than one sibling with short stature, particularly if there is consanguinity.

  • Syndrome phenotype might be variable within a family with the same mutation.

  • Genetic analysis is helpful in confirming diagnosis in the presence of variable siblings' phenotype.

  • GH treatment might be useful in improving stature in 3-M syndrome.

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Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

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Veejay Bagga Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK

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Stephen B Wharton Department of Histopathology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK

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Daniel J Connolly Department of Neuroradiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
Department of Neuroradiology, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, S10 2TH, UK

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Saurabh Sinha Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
Department of Neurosurgery, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, S10 2TH, UK

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Paul J Dimitri Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, S10 2TH, UK

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Summary

Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process.

Learning points

  • XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.

  • XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal arrest in adolescents. In adults, the presentation may vary.

  • A combination of hypopituitarism and mixed signal intensity lesion on MRI is suggestive of XGH and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

  • Radical surgery is the treatment of choice and carries an excellent prognosis with no recurrence.

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