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Nicholas J Theis Dunedin School of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Toby Calvert Dunedin School of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Peter McIntyre Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Stephen P Robertson Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Benjamin J Wheeler Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Summary

Cantu syndrome, or hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, is a rare, autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. It is characterized by hypertrichosis, cardiac and skeletal anomalies and distinctive coarse facial features. We report a case where slowed growth velocity at 13 years led to identification of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. This adds to other reports of pituitary abnormalities in this condition and supports inclusion of endocrine monitoring in the clinical surveillance of patients with Cantu syndrome.

Learning points:

  • Cantu syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the ABCC9 and KCNJ8 genes, which result in gain of function of the SUR2 or Kir6.1 subunits of widely expressed KATP channels.

  • The main manifestations of the syndrome are varied, but most commonly include hypertrichosis, macrosomia, macrocephaly, coarse ‘acromegaloid’ facies, and a range of cardiac defects.

  • Anterior pituitary dysfunction may be implicated in this disorder, and we propose that routine screening should be included in the clinical and biochemical surveillance of patients with Cantu syndrome.

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Ilan Rahmani Tzvi-Ran Department of Internal Medicine F, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel

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Judith Olchowski Department of Internal Medicine F, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel

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Merav Fraenkel Department of Internal Medicine F, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel

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Asher Bashiri Department of Internal Medicine F, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel

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Leonid Barski Department of Internal Medicine F, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel

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Summary

A previously healthy 24-year-old female underwent an emergent caesarean section without a major bleeding described. During the first post-operative days (POD) she complained of fatigue, headache and a failure to lactate with no specific and conclusive findings on head CT. On the following days, fever rose with a suspicion of an obstetric surgery-related infection, again with no evidence to support the diagnosis. On POD5 a new-onset hyponatremia was documented. The urine analysis suggested SIADH, and following a treatment failure, further investigation was performed and demonstrated both central hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The patient was immediately treated with hydrocortisone followed by levothyroxine with a rapid resolution of symptoms and hyponatremia. Further laboratory investigation demonstrated anterior hypopituitarism. The main differential diagnosis was Sheehan’s syndrome vs lymphocytic hypophysitis. Brain MRI was performed as soon as it was available and findings consistent with Sheehan’s syndrome confirmed the diagnosis. Lifelong hormonal replacement therapy was initiated. Further complaints on polyuria and polydipsia have led to a water deprivation testing and the diagnosis of partial central insipidus and appropriate treatment with DDAVP.

Learning points:

  • Sheehan’s syndrome can occur, though rarely, without an obvious major post-partum hemorrhage.

  • The syndrome may resemble lymphocytic hypophysitis clinically and imaging studies may be crucial in order to differentiate both conditions.

  • Hypopituitarism presentation may be variable and depends on the specific hormone deficit.

  • Euvolemic hyponatremia workup must include thyroid function test and 08:00 AM cortisol levels.

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Susan Ahern Division of Endocrinology, UCLA School of Medicine, Ventura, California, USA

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Mark Daniels Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California, USA

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Amrit Bhangoo Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California, USA

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Summary

In this case report, we present a novel mutation in Lim-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor, LHX3, manifesting as combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). This female patient was originally diagnosed in Egypt during infancy with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) requiring several blood transfusions. Around 10 months of age, she was diagnosed and treated for central hypothyroidism. It was not until she came to the United States around two-and-a-half years of age that she was diagnosed and treated for growth hormone deficiency. Her response to growth hormone replacement on linear growth and muscle tone were impressive. She still suffers from severe global development delay likely due to delay in treatment of congenital central hypothyroidism followed by poor access to reliable thyroid medications. Her diagnosis of DBA was not confirmed after genetic testing in the United States and her hemoglobin normalized with hormone replacement therapies. We will review the patient’s clinical course as well as a review of LHX3 mutations and the associated phenotype.

Learning points:

  • Describe an unusual presentation of undertreated pituitary hormone deficiencies in early life

  • Combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to a novel mutation in pituitary transcription factor, LHX3

  • Describe the clinical phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to LHX3 mutations

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George Stoyle Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK
Manchester Medical School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Siddharth Banka Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Division of Evolution & Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Claire Langley Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Elizabeth A Jones Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Division of Evolution & Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Indraneel Banerjee Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Summary

Wiedemann–Steiner Syndrome (WSS) is a rare condition characterised by short stature, hypertrichosis of the elbow, intellectual disability and characteristic facial dysmorphism due to heterozygous loss of function mutations in KMT2A, a gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Children with WSS are often short and until recently, it had been assumed that short stature is an intrinsic part of the syndrome. GHD has recently been reported as part of the phenotypic spectrum of WSS. We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy with a novel heterozygous variant in KMT2A and features consistent with a diagnosis of WSS who also had growth hormone deficiency (GHD). GHD was diagnosed on dynamic function testing for growth hormone (GH) secretion, low insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and pituitary-specific MRI demonstrating anterior pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. Treatment with GH improved height performance with growth trajectory being normalised to the parental height range. Our case highlights the need for GH testing in children with WSS and short stature as treatment with GH improves growth trajectory.

Learning points:

  • Growth hormone deficiency might be part of the phenotypic spectrum of Wiedemann–Steiner Syndrome (WSS).

  • Investigation of pituitary function should be undertaken in children with WSS and short stature. A pituitary MR scan should be considered if there is biochemical evidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD).

  • Recombinant human growth hormone treatment should be considered for treatment of GHD.

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Alireza Arefzadeh Endocrinology Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Pooyan Khalighinejad School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

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Bahar Ataeinia School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Pegah Parvar School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University Medical Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

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Summary

Deletion of chromosome 2q37 results in a rare congenital syndrome known as brachydactyly mental retardation (BDMR) syndrome; a syndrome which has phenotypes similar to Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. In this report, we describe a patient with AHO due to microdeletion in long arm of chromosome 2 [del(2)(q37.3)] who had growth hormone (GH) deficiency, which is a unique feature among reported BDMR cases. This case was presented with shortening of the fourth and fifth metacarpals which along with AHO phenotype, brings pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) to mind; however, a genetic study revealed del(2)(q37.3). We recommend clinicians to take BDMR in consideration when they are faced with the features of AHO; although this syndrome is a rare disease, it should be ruled out while diagnosing PPHP or PHP-Ia. Moreover, we recommend evaluation of IGF 1 level and GH stimulation test in patients with BDMR whose height is below the 3rd percentile.

Learning points:

  • Clinicians must have brachydactyly mental retardation (BDMR) syndrome in consideration when they are faced with the features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.

  • Although BDMR syndrome is a rare disease, it should be ruled out while diagnosing PPHP or PHP-Ia.

  • Evaluation of IGF1 level in patients diagnosed with BDMR whose height is below the 3rd percentile is important.

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Jia Xuan Siew Paediatric Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

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Fabian Yap Paediatric Endocrinology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

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Summary

Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0–4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0–17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed.

Learning points:

  • Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.

  • While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.

  • Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

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Snezana Burmazovic Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Christoph Henzen Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Lukas Brander Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Luca Cioccari Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland
Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Prahran, Australia

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Summary

The combination of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus is unusual and poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In a patient with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology that is considered, and achieving glycaemic control remains the first course of action. However, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality suggest concurrent symptomatic diabetes insipidus. We report a rare case of concurrent manifestation of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus in a patient with a history of craniopharyngioma.

Learning points:

  • In patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology to be considered.

  • However, a history of craniopharyngioma, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and osmolality provide evidence of concurrent diabetes insipidus.

  • Therefore, if a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia, a low or low normal urinary-specific gravity and worsening polyuria despite correction of hyperglycaemia, concurrent diabetes insipidus should be sought.

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Jordan Yardain Amar Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Kimberly Borden David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA

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Elizabeth Watson Sidney Kimmel College of Medicine at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Talin Arslanian Mattel Children’s Hospital, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA

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Summary

Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) is a rare cause of short stature, treated with the standard regimen of subcutaneous synthetic growth hormone (GH). Patients typically achieve a maximum height velocity in the first year of treatment, which then tapers shortly after treatment is stopped. We report a case of a 9-year-old male who presented with short stature (<3rd percentile for age and race). Basal hormone levels showed undetectable serum IGF1. Skeletal wrist age was consistent with chronologic age. Cranial MRI revealed no masses or lesions. Provocative arginine-GH stimulation testing demonstrated a peak GH level of 1.4 ng/mL. Confirmatory genetic testing revealed a rare autosomal recessive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with mutational frequency of 2%. GH supplementation was started and pursued for 2 years, producing dramatically increased height velocity. This velocity persisted linearly through adolescence, several years after treatment had been discontinued. Final adult height was >95th percentile for age and race. In conclusion, this is a case of primary hypopituitarism with differential diagnosis of IGHD vs Idiopathic Short Stature vs Constitutional Growth Delay. This case supports two objectives: Firstly, it highlights the importance of confirmatory genetic testing in patients with suspected, though diagnostically uncertain, IGHD. Secondly, it demonstrates a novel secondary growth pattern with implications for better understanding the tremendous variability of GH treatment response.

Learning points:

  • GHD is a common cause of growth retardation, and IGHD is a specific subtype of GHD in which patients present solely with short stature.

  • The standard treatment for IGHD is subcutaneous synthetic GH until mid-parental height is reached, with peak height velocity attained in the 1st year of treatment in the vast majority of patients.

  • Genetic testing should be strongly considered in cases of diagnostic uncertainty prior to initiating treatment.

  • Future investigations of GH treatment response that stratify by gene and specific mutation will help guide treatment decisions.

  • Response to treatment in patients with IGHD is variable, with some patients demonstrating little to no response, while others are ‘super-responders.’

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Jeremy M W Kirk Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, B4 6NH, UK

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Nalin Wickramasuriya Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, B4 6NH, UK

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Nicholas J Shaw Department of Endocrinology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, B4 6NH, UK

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Summary

Estrogen is used to induce puberty in peripubertal girls with hypogonadism. Although both synthetic and natural forms are available, along with different routes of administration, in the UK oral ethinyl estradiol and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill are commonly used as hormone replacement therapy for practical reasons. We present five peripubertal girls (aged 12.5–14.9 years) with hypogonadism (two with primary hypogonadism due to Turner syndrome and three with central (secondary) hypogonadism as part of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency) who for a variety of reasons have received milligram doses of estradiol (E2) in error for between 6 weeks and 6 months, instead of the expected microgram doses of ethinyl estradiol. Although there are no direct comparisons in peripubertal girls between synthetic and natural estrogens, all girls had vaginal bleeding whilst receiving the milligram doses and have ended up with reduced final heights, below the 9th centile in 1 and below the 2nd centile in 4. Whilst reduction in final height may be part of the underlying condition (especially in Turner syndrome) the two girls with height predictions performed prior to receiving the estrogen overdose have not achieved their predicted height. Estrogen is one of the few drugs which is available in both milligram and microgram formulations. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of patients receiving the wrong formulation and dosage in error.

Learning points

  • Girls with primary and secondary gonadal failure require assistance with pubertal induction.

  • Although several different formulations and route of administration are available, for practical reasons, the majority of girls in the UK receive oral ethinyl estradiol.

  • Estrogen preparations are available in both milligram and microgram formulations, with potential for receiving the wrong dose.

  • Girls receiving milligram rather than microgram preparations all had vaginal bleeding and a short final height.

Open access
G K Dimitriadis Warwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK
Division of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

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K Gopalakrishnan Department of Histopathology, Coventry and Warwickshire, Pathology Service, UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, UK

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R Rao Warwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK

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D K Grammatopoulos Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Histopathology, Coventry and Warwickshire, Pathology Service, UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, UK

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H S Randeva Warwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK
Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

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M O Weickert Warwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK

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N Murthy Warwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK

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Summary

We report the case of a 70-year-old previously healthy female who presented acutely to the Accident and Emergency department with left-sided vasomotor symptoms including reduced muscle tone, weakness upon walking and slurred speech. Physical examination confirmed hemiparesis with VIIth nerve palsy and profound hepatomegaly. A random glucose was low at 1.7 mmol/l, which upon correction resolved her symptoms. In hindsight, the patient recalled having had similar episodes periodically over the past 3 months to which she did not give much attention. While hospitalized, she continued having episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia during most nights, requiring treatment with i.v. dextrose and/or glucagon. Blood tests including insulin and C-peptide were invariably suppressed, in correlation with low glucose. A Synacthen stimulation test was normal (Cort (0′) 390 nmol/l, Cort (30′) 773 nmol/l). A computed tomography scan showed multiple lobulated masses in the abdomen, liver and pelvis. An ultrasound guided biopsy of one of the pelvic masses was performed. Immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) positive for CD34 and CD117. A diagnosis of a non islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) secondary to an IGF2 secreting GIST was confirmed with further biochemical investigations (IGF2=96.5 nmol/l; IGF2:IGF1 ratio 18.9, ULN <10). Treatment with growth hormone resolved the patient's hypoglycaemic symptoms and subsequent targeted therapy with Imatinib was successful in controlling disease progression over an 8-year observation period.

Learning points

  • NICTH can be a rare complication of GISTs that may manifest with severe hypoglycaemia and neuroglucopenic symptoms.

  • NICTH can masquerade as other pathologies thus causing diagnostic confusion.

  • Histological confirmation of GIST induced NICTH and exclusion of other conditions causing hypoglycaemia is essential.

  • Mutational analysis of GISTs should be carried out in all cases as it guides treatment decision.

  • Tailored management of hypoglycaemia, in this case using growth hormone and targeted cyto-reductive therapy, minimizes the risk of possible life-threatening complications.

Open access