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Viktoria F Koehler Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Patrick Keller Department of Urology, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Elisa Waldmann Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Nathalie Schwenk Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Carolin Kitzberger Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Kathrin A Schmohl Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Thomas Knösel Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Christian Georg Stief Department of Urology, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Christine Spitzweg Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Summary

Struma ovarii is a teratoma of the ovaries predominantly composed of thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism associated with struma ovarii is rare, occurring in approximately 8% of cases. Due to the rarity of struma ovarii, available data are limited to case reports and small case series.We report on a 61-year-old female patient with known Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on levothyroxine replacement therapy for years with transition to clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism despite antithyroid medication with carbimazole (10 mg/day), new diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma and an adnexal mass suspicious of ovarian cancer. The patient underwent resection of the adnexal mass and histopathology revealed a mature teratoma predominantly composed of thyroid tissue showing high levels of sodium iodide symporter protein expression. Following struma ovarii resection and disappearance of autonomous production of thyroid hormones, the patient developed hypothyroidism with severely decreased thyroid hormone levels fT4 and fT3 (fT4 0.4 ng/dL, reference interval 0.9–1.7 and fT3 < 1.0 pg/mL, reference interval 2.0–4.4). This has previously been masked by continued thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression due to long-term hyperthyroidism pre-surgery indicating secondary hypothyroidism, in addition to primary hypothyroidism based on the known co-existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis of the orthotopic thyroid gland. Levothyroxine administration was started immediately restoring euthyroidism.This case illustrates possible diagnostic pitfalls in a patient with two concurrent causes of abnormal thyroid function.

Learning points:

  • Struma ovarii is an ovarian tumor containing either entirely or predominantly thyroid tissue and accounts for approximately 5% of all ovarian teratomas.

  • In rare cases, both benign and malignant struma ovarii can secrete thyroid hormones, causing clinical and biochemical features of hyperthyroidism.

  • Biochemical features of patients with struma ovarii and hyperthyroidism are similar to those of patients with primary hyperthyroidism. In such cases, thyroid scintigraphy should reveal low or absent radioiodine uptake in the thyroid gland, but the presence of radioiodine uptake in the pelvis in a whole body radioiodine scintigraphy.

  • We give advice on possible diagnostic pitfalls in a case with two simultaneous causes of abnormal thyroid function due to the co-existence of struma ovarii.

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Rob Gonsalves Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Kirk Aleck Division of Genetics, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Dorothee Newbern Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Gabriel Shaibi Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Chirag Kapadia Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Oliver Oatman Division of Endocrinology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Summary

Single-minded homolog 1 (SIM1) is a transcription factor that plays a role in the development of both the hypothalamus and pituitary. SIM1 gene mutations are known to cause obesity in humans, and chromosomal deletions encompassing SIM1 and other genes necessary for pituitary development can cause a Prader–Willi-like syndrome with obesity and hypopituitarism. There have been no reported cases of hypopituitarism linked to a single SIM1 mutation. A 21-month-old male presented to endocrinology clinic with excessive weight gain and severe obesity. History was also notable for excessive drinking and urination. Endocrine workup revealed central hypothyroidism, partial diabetes insipidus, and central adrenal insufficiency. Genetic evaluation revealed a novel mutation in the SIM1 gene. No other genetic abnormalities to account for his obesity and hypopituitarism were identified. While we cannot definitively state this mutation is pathogenic, it is notable that SIM1 plays a role in the development of all three of the patient’s affected hormone axes. He is now 6 years old and remains on treatment for his pituitary hormone deficiencies and continues to exhibit excessive weight gain despite lifestyle interventions.

Learning points:

  • Mutations in SIM1 are a well-recognized cause of monogenic human obesity, and there have been case reports of Prader–Willi-like syndrome and hypopituitarism in patients with chromosomal deletions that contain the SIM1 gene.

  • SIM1 is expressed during the development of the hypothalamus, specifically in neuroendocrine lineages that give rise to the hormones oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin.

  • Pituitary testing should be considered in patients with severe obesity and a known genetic abnormality affecting the SIM1 gene, particularly in the pediatric population.

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Tomomi Nakao First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Ken Takeshima First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Hiroyuki Ariyasu First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Chiaki Kurimoto First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Shinsuke Uraki First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Shuhei Morita First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Yasushi Furukawa First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Hiroshi Iwakura First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Takashi Akamizu First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama City, Wakayama, Japan

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Summary

Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening condition that may suffer thyrotoxic patients. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a rescue approach for TS with acute hepatic failure, but it should be initiated with careful considerations. We present a 55-year-old male patient with untreated Graves’ disease who developed TS. Severe hyperthyroidism and refractory atrial fibrillation with congestive heart failure aggregated to multiple organ failure. The patient was recovered by intensive multimodal therapy, but we had difficulty in introducing TPE treatment considering the risk of exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to plasma volume overload. In addition, serum total bilirubin level was not elevated in the early phase to the level of indication for TPE. The clinical course of this patient instructed delayed elevation of bilirubin until the level of indication for TPE in some patients and also demonstrated the risk of exacerbation of congestive heart failure by TPE.

Learning points:

  • Our patient with thyroid storm could be diagnosed and treated promptly using Japan Thyroid Association guidelines for thyroid storm.

  • Delayed elevation of serum bilirubin levels could make the decision of introducing therapeutic plasma exchange difficult in cases of thyroid storm with acute hepatic failure.

  • The risk of worsening congestive heart failure should be considered carefully when performing therapeutic plasma exchange.