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Maha Khalil Abass Pediatric Endocrinology Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Aisha Al Shamsi Clinical Genetics Department, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

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Iftikhar Jan Paediatric Surgery Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Mohammed Suhail Yasin Masalawala Clinical Trial Unit, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Asma Deeb Pediatric Endocrinology Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Summary

The most frequent causes of pancreatitis classically have been known to be gallstones or alcohol. However, genetics can also play a key role in predisposing patients to both chronic and acute pancreatitis. The serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) gene is known to be strongly associated with pancreatitis. Patients with these underlying genetic mutations can have severe diseases with a high morbidity rate and frequent hospitalization. We report an Arab girl who presented with acute pancreatitis at the age of 7 years progressing to recurrent chronic pancreatitis over a few years. She had severe obesity from the age of 4 years and developed type 2 diabetes at the age of 12. She had a normal biliary system anatomy. Genetic analysis showed that she had combined heterozygous mutations in the SPINK1 gene (SPINK1, c.101A>G p.(Asn34Ser) and SPINK1, c.56-37T>C). Her parents were first-degree cousins, but neither had obesity. Mother was detected to have the same mutations. She had type 2 diabetes but never presented with pancreatitis. This case is the first to be reported from the Arab region with these combined mutations leading to recurrent chronic pancreatitis. It illustrates the importance of diagnosing the underlying genetic mutation in the absence of other known causes of pancreatitis. Considering the absence of pancreatitis history in the mother who did not have obesity but harboured the same mutations, we point out that severe obesity might be a triggering factor of pancreatitis in the presence of the mutations in SPINK1 gene in this child. While this is not an assumption from a single patient, we show that not all carriers of this mutation develop the disease even within the same family. Triggering factors like severe obesity might have a role in developing the disease.

Learning points

  • Acute recurrent pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are uncommon in children but might be underdiagnosed.

  • Biliary tract anomalies and dyslipidaemias are known causative factors for pancreatitis, but pancreatitis can be seen in children with intact biliary system.

  • Genetic diagnosis should be sought in children with pancreatitis in the absence of known underlying predisposing factors.

  • SPINK1 mutations can predispose to an early-onset severe recurrent pancreatitis and acute pancreatitis.

Open access
Carolina Chaves Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Divino Espírito Santo de Ponta Delgada, EPER, Azores Islands, Portugal

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Teresa Kay Department of Medical Genetics, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, EPE, Lisbon, Portugal

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João Anselmo Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Divino Espírito Santo de Ponta Delgada, EPER, Azores Islands, Portugal

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Summary

Leptin is secreted by adipocytes in response to fat storage and binds to its receptor (LEPR), which is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. Leptin regulates energy expenditure and is anorexigenic. In this study, we describe the clinical and hormonal findings of three siblings with a personal history of rapid weight gain during the first months of life. They had delayed puberty, high levels of FSH (15.6 ± 3.7 mUI/mL; reference: 1.5–12.4) and LH (12.3 ± 2.2 mUI/mL; reference: 1.7–8.6), normal oestradiol and total testosterone and successful fertility. None of the patients had dyslipidemia, diabetes or thyroid disease. Next-generation sequencing identified a pathogenic homozygous variant c.2357T>C, p.(Leu786Pro) in LEPR. Their parents and children were heterozygous for this mutation. We compared clinical and biochemical findings of homozygous carriers with first-degree heterozygous family members and ten randomly selected patients with adult-onset morbid obesity. Homozygous carriers of the mutation had significantly higher BMI (32.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2 vs 44.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2, P = 0.023) and increased serum levels of leptin (26.3 ± 9.3 ng/mL vs 80 ± 36.4 ng/mL, P = 0.028) than their heterozygous relatives. Compared with the ten patients with adult-onset morbid obesity, serum levels of leptin were not significantly higher in homozygous carriers (53.8 ± 24.1 ng/mL vs 80 ± 36.4 ng/mL, P = 0.149), and thus serum levels of leptin were not a useful discriminative marker of LEPR mutations. We described a rare three-generation family with monogenic obesity due to a mutation in LEPR. Patients with early onset obesity should be considered for genetic screening, as the identification of mutations may allow personalized treatment options (e.g. MC4R-agonists) and targeted successful weight loss.

Learning points

  • The early diagnosis of monogenic forms of obesity can be of great interest since new treatments for these conditions are becoming available.

  • Since BMI and leptin levels in patients with leptin receptor mutations are not significantly different from those found in randomly selected morbid obese patients, a careful medical history is mandatory to suspect this condition.

  • Loss of leptin receptor function has been associated with infertility. However, our patients were able to conceive, emphasizing the need for genetic counselling in affected patients with this condition.

Open access
Mami Kobayashi Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan
Department of Pediatrics, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Hideaki Yagasaki Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Kei Tamaru Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Yumiko Mitsui Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Takeshi Inukai Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Summary

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is characterized by obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism. Hypogonadism is characterized by normal luteinizing hormone (LH), high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), low testosterone, low inhibin B, and relatively low anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Only a few cases of central precocious puberty (CPP) have been reported in PWS, and follow-up for CPP with PWS is not established. Hence, we present a boy with PWS accompanied by CPP. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy was started at 7 years of age, CPP was adequately arrested, and GnRHa therapy was discontinued at 11.3 years of age. Growth hormone (GH) therapy was started at 12 years of age due to inadequate growth. He grew close to his final height, and his testes developed with normal LH, increased FSH, normal testosterone, and reduced AMH corresponding to puberty at 13.5 years of age. The features of 16 patients with PWS with CPP, including our patient, were summarized. Out of seven male patients, five were treated with GnRHa, as well as four out of nine female patients. Out of 16 patients, 6 were assessed with pubertal development over 13 years of age. Pubertal development was considered to be restored in four patients who had GnRHa therapy discontinuation. We should carefully follow-up on pubertal development in CPP. GnRHa therapy is useful for adequate puberty blockage, and pubertal development could be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

Learning points

  • Pubertal development in Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) varies from hypogonadism to precocious puberty.

  • Pubertal development assessment based on clinical features and hormone levels is needed in central precocious puberty (CPP) treatment with PWS.

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy is useful for CPP with PWS, and pubertal development can be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

Open access
Adam I Kaplan Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Catherine Luxford Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Roderick J Clifton-Bligh Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

Biallelic pathological variants in the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) subunit β gene (TSHB) result in isolated TSH deficiency and secondary hypothyroidism, a rare form of central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH), with an estimated incidence of 1 in 65 000 births. It is characterised by low levels of free thyroxine and inappropriately low serum TSH and may therefore be missed on routine neonatal screening for hypothyroidism, which relies on elevated TSH. We describe a patient with CCH who developed recurrence of pituitary hyperplasia and symptomatic hypothyroidism due to poor compliance with thyroxine replacement. She was diagnosed with CCH as a neonate and had previously required trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy surgery for pituitary hyperplasia associated with threatened chiasmal compression at 17 years of age due to variable adherence to thyroxine replacement. Genetic testing of TSHB identified compound heterozygosity with novel variant c.217A>C, p.(Thr73Pro), and a previously reported variant c.373delT, p.(Cys125Valfs*10). Continued variable adherence to treatment as an adult resulted in recurrence of significant pituitary hyperplasia, which subsequently resolved with improved compliance without the need for additional medications or repeat surgery. This case describes a novel TSHB variant associated with CCH and demonstrates the importance of consistent compliance with thyroxine replacement to treat hypothyroidism and prevent pituitary hyperplasia in central hypothyroidism.

Learning points

  • Pathogenic variants in the TSH subunit β gene (TSHB) are rare causes of central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH).

  • c.217A>C, p.(Thr73Pro), is a novel TSHB variant, presented in association with CCH in this case report.

  • Thyroxine replacement is critical to prevent clinical hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia.

  • Pituitary hyperplasia can recur post-surgery if adherence to thyroxine replacement is not maintained.

  • Pituitary hyperplasia can dramatically reverse if compliance with thyroxine replacement is improved to maintain free thyroxine (FT4) levels in the middle-to-upper normal range, without the need for additional medications or surgeries.

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Pranav Gupta Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Karen Loechner Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Connecticut Childrens Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA

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Briana C Patterson Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Eric Felner Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Summary

Insulinomas are a rare cause of persistent hypoglycemia in a previously healthy child. In addition to symptoms of hypoglycemia, individuals with insulinomas usually present with a history of incessant caloric intake and weight gain due to a constant need to counter hypoglycemia. In addition to an extensive review of the literature, we report the first case of an insulinoma coexisting with reduced appetite secondary to anorexia nervosa in an adolescent female.

Learning points

  • Eliciting a detailed family history is important in hypoglycemia cases.

  • Obtaining a thorough dietary intake, weight history, and menstrual cycles (in females) and considering a psychiatric consultation for an eating disorder when indicated.

  • Although rare in the pediatric population, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome should be considered in the evaluation of children and adolescents with hypoglycemia who also have a family history of pituitary, pancreatic, and/or parathyroid endocrinopathies.

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Priya Darshani Chhiba University of the Witwatersrand, Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

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David Segal University of the Witwatersrand, Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Summary

Recombinant human growth hormone therapy (rhGH) has been available since 1985 for a variety of conditions and has expanded the indications for rhGH therapy and the number of patients receiving therapy. The very nature of the therapy exposes individuals to years of injections. There are a number of well-known adverse events, however, a lesser-known and rarely reported adverse event of rhGH therapy is localized lipoatrophy. We report nine cases of localized lipoatrophy during rhGH therapy accounting for 14.5% of patients taking rhGH presenting to a single centre for routine follow-up over just a 2-month period. The development of localized lipoatrophy does not appear to be age, indication or dose-related but rather related to repeated administration of rhGH into a limited number of sites. The most likely putative mechanism is the local lipolytic action of growth hormone (GH) itself, although the possibility of an excipient-based interaction cannot be excluded. Given the high prevalence of this adverse event and the potential to prevent it with adequate site rotation, we can recommend that patients be informed of the possible development of localized lipoatrophy. Doctors and nurses should closely examine injection sites at each visit, and site rotation should be emphasized during injection technique education.

Learning points

  • There are a number of well-known adverse events, however, a lesser-known and rarely reported adverse event of rhGH therapy is localized lipoatrophy.

  • Examination of the injection sites at each visit by the treating healthcare practitioner.

  • To advise the parents/caregivers/patients to change their injection site with each injection.

  • To advise the parents/caregivers/patients to change the needles after every use.

  • For parents, caregivers and patients to self-inspect their injection sites and have a high alert for the development of lipoatrophy and to then immediately report it to their doctor.

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Angelika Mohn Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy

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Nella Polidori Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy

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Chiara Aiello Department of Neurosciences, Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy

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Cristiano Rizzo Division of Metabolism and Research Unit of Metabolic Biochemistry, Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy

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Cosimo Giannini Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy

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Francesco Chiarelli Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy

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Marco Cappa Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy

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Summary

Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, located on the X-chromosome (Xq28). Gene mutations in patient with adrenoleukodystrophy induce metabolic alterations characterized by impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation and accumulation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) in plasma and in all tissues. Although nutritional intervention associated with a various mixture of oil prevents the accumulation of VLCFA, to date no causal treatment is available. Therefore, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and gene therapy are allowed only for very early stages of cerebral forms diagnosed during childhood.We reported a case series describing five family members affected by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy caused by a novel mutation of the ABCD1 gene. Particularly, three brothers were affected while the sister and mother carried the mutation of the ABCD1 gene. In this family, the disease was diagnosed at different ages and with different clinical pictures highlighting the wide range of phenotypes related to this novel mutation. In addition, these characteristics stress the relevant role of early diagnosis to properly set a patient-based follow-up.

Learning points

  • We report a novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene documented in a family group associated to an X-ALD possible Addison only phenotype.

  • All patients present just Addison disease but with different phenotypes despite the presence of the same mutations. Further follow-up is necessary to complete discuss the clinical development.

  • The diagnosis of ALD needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in all patients with idiopathic PAI through accurate evaluation of VLCFA concentrations and genetic confirmation testing.

  • Early diagnosis of neurological manifestation is important in order to refer timely to HSCT.

  • Further follow-up of these family members is necessary to characterize the final phenotype associated with this new mutation.

Open access
Marina Yukina Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Nurana Nuralieva Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Sorkina Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Troshina Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Anatoly Tiulpakov Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Zhanna Belaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Galina Melnichenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Summary

Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene mutations cause a heterogeneous group of progeroid disorders, including Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, mandibuloacral dysplasia, atypical progeroid syndrome (APS) and generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome (GLPS). All of those syndromes are associated with some progeroid features, lipodystrophy and metabolic complications but vary differently depending on a particular mutation and even patients carrying the same gene variant are known to have clinical heterogeneity. We report a new 30-year-old female patient from Russia with an APS and generalized lipodystrophy (GL) due to the heterozygous de novo LMNA p.E262K mutation and compare her clinical and metabolic features to those of other described patients with APS. Despite many health issues, short stature, skeletal problems, GL and late diagnosis of APS, our patient seems to be relatively metabolically healthy for her age when compared to previously described patients with APS.

Learning points

  • Atypical progeroid syndromes (APS) are rare and heterogenic with different age of onset and degree of metabolic disorders, which makes this diagnosis very challenging for clinicians and may be missed until the adulthood.

  • The clinical picture of the APS depends on a particular mutation in the LMNA gene, but may vary even between the patients with the same mutation.

  • The APS due to a heterozygous LMNA p.E262K mutation, which we report in this patient, seems to have association with the generalized lipodystrophy, short stature and osteoporosis, but otherwise, it seems to cause relatively mild metabolic complications by the age of 30.

  • The patients with APS and lipodystrophy syndromes require a personalized and multidisciplinary approach, and so they should be referred to highly specialized reference-centres for diagnostics and treatment as early as possible.

  • Because of the high heterogeneity of such a rare disease as APS, every patient’s description is noteworthy for a better understanding of this challenging syndrome, including the analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations.

Open access
Katsuo Tao Department of Pediatrics, Fukui Aiiku Hospital, Fukui, Japan

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Midori Awazu Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Misa Honda Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Hironori Shibata Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Takayasu Mori Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Fukui, Japan

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Shinichi Uchida Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Fukui, Japan

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Tomonobu Hasegawa Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Tomohiro Ishii Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Summary

We report a male infant with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) who presented with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia since birth. Serum sodium started to increase at 39 days. Although there was no polyuria, urine osmolality was 71 mOsm/kg, when serum osmolality was 296 mOsm/kg with plasma arginine vasopressin 22.5 pg/mL. He was thus diagnosed as NDI. An undetectable level of urine calcium and unsuppressed intact parathyroid hormone suggested hyperparathyroidism including calcium-sensing receptor mutations that could cause hypercalcemia-induced NDI. Polyuria became apparent after the initiation of i.v. infusion for the treatment of hypernatremia. Low calcium and low sodium formula with hypotonic fluid infusion did not correct hypernatremia, hypercalcemia, or hyperphosphatemia. Hydrochlorothiazide and subsequently added celecoxib effectively decreased urine output and corrected electrolytes abnormalities. Normal serum electrolytes were maintained after the discontinuation of low calcium formula. The genetic analysis revealed a large deletion of the arginine vasopressin receptor-2 (AVPR2) gene but no pathogenic variant in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene. Whether hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were caused by dehydration alone or in combination with other mechanisms remains to be clarified.

Learning points

  • Congenital NDI can present with neonatal hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.

  • Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia can be treated with low calcium and low sodium formula, hydration, hydrochlorothiazide, and celecoxib.

  • Genetic testing is sometimes necessary in the differentiating diagnosis of hypercalcemia associated with NDI.

Open access
Tetsuji Wakabayashi Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Akihito Takei Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Nobukazu Okada Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Miki Shinohara Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Manabu Takahashi Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Shuichi Nagashima Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Kenta Okada Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Ken Ebihara Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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