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Agnieszka Łebkowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Anna Krentowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Agnieszka Adamska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Danuta Lipińska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Beata Piasecka Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Otylia Kowal-Bielecka Department of Rheumatology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland

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Maria Górska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Robert K Semple Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

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Irina Kowalska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Diabetology and Internal Medicine

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Summary

Type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIR) is characterised by the rapid onset of severe insulin resistance due to circulating anti-insulin receptor antibodies (AIRAs). Widespread acanthosis nigricans is normally seen, and co-occurrence with other autoimmune diseases is common. We report a 27-year-old Caucasian man with psoriasis and connective tissue disease who presented with unexplained rapid weight loss, severe acanthosis nigricans, and hyperglycaemia punctuated by fasting hypoglycaemia. Severe insulin resistance was confirmed by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamping, and immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated AIRAs, confirming TBIR. Treatment with corticosteroids, metformin and hydroxychloroquine allowed withdrawal of insulin therapy, with stabilisation of glycaemia and diminished signs of insulin resistance; however, morning fasting hypoglycaemic episodes persisted. Over three years of follow-up, metabolic control remained satisfactory on a regimen of metformin, hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate; however, psoriatic arthritis developed. This case illustrates TBIR as a rare but severe form of acquired insulin resistance and describes an effective multidisciplinary approach to treatment.

Learning points:

  • We describe an unusual case of type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIR) in association with mixed connective tissue disease and psoriasis.

  • Clinical evidence of severe insulin resistance was corroborated by euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, and anti-insulin receptor autoantibodies were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assay.

  • Treatment with metformin, hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate ameliorated extreme insulin resistance.

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S Livadas Endocrine Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Greece

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I Androulakis Endocrine Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Greece

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N Angelopoulos Endocrine Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Greece

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A Lytras Endocrine Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, Greece

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F Papagiannopoulos Novo-Nordisk, Athens, Greece

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G Kassi Endocrine Unit, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Summary

HAIR-AN syndrome, the coexistence of Hirsutism, Insulin Resistance (IR) and Acanthosis Nigricans, constitutes a rare nosologic entity. It is characterized from clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism accompanied with severe insulin resistance, chronic anovulation and metabolic abnormalities. Literally, HAIR-AN represents an extreme case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In everyday practice, the management of HAIR-AN constitutes a therapeutic challenge with the available pharmaceutical agents. Specifically, the degree of IR cannot be significantly ameliorated with metformin administration, whereas oral contraceptives chronic administration is associated with worsening of metabolic profile. Liraglutide and exenatide, in combination with metformin, have been introduced in the management of significantly obese women with PCOS with satisfactory results. Based on this notion, we prescribed liraglutide in five women with HAIR-AN. In all participants a significant improvement regarding the degree of IR, fat depositions, androgen levels and the pattern of menstrual cycle was observed, with minimal weight loss. Furthermore, one woman became pregnant during liraglutide treatment giving birth to a healthy child. Accordingly, we conclude that liraglutide constitutes an effective alternative in the management of women with HAIR-AN.

Learning points:

  • HAIR-AN management is challenging and classic therapeutic regimens are ineffective.

  • Literally HAIR-AN syndrome, the coexistence of Hirsutism, Insulin Resistance and Acanthosis Nigricans, represents an extreme case of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  • In cases of HAIR-AN, liraglutide constitutes an effective and safe choice.

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Sharmin Jahan Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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M A Hasanat Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Tahseen Mahmood Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Shahed Morshed Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Raziul Haq Department of Neurosurgery, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Md Fariduddin Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Summary

Silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) is an unusual type of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) that is silent both clinically and biochemically and can only be recognized by positive immunostaining for ACTH. Under rare circumstances, it can transform into hormonally active disease presenting with severe Cushing syndrome. It might often produce diagnostic dilemma with difficult management issue if not thoroughly investigated and subtyped accordingly following surgery. Here, we present a 21-year-old male who initially underwent pituitary adenomectomy for presumed NFA with compressive symptoms. However, he developed recurrent and invasive macroadenoma with severe clinical as well as biochemical hypercortisolism during post-surgical follow-up. Repeat pituitary surgery was carried out urgently as there was significant optic chiasmal compression. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue obtained on repeat surgery proved it to be an aggressive corticotroph adenoma. Though not cured, he showed marked clinical and biochemical improvement in the immediate postoperative period. Anticipating recurrence from the residual tumor, we referred him for cyber knife radio surgery.

Learning points:

  • Pituitary NFA commonly present with compressive symptoms such as headache and blurred vision.

  • Post-surgical development of Cushing syndrome in such a case could be either drug induced or endogenous.

  • In the presence of recurrent pituitary tumor, ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome indicates CD.

  • Rarely a SCA presenting initially as NFA can transform into an active corticotroph adenoma.

  • Immunohistochemical marker for ACTH in the resected tumor confirms the diagnosis.

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Mohammed Faraz Rafey Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Arslan Butt Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Barry Coffey Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Lisa Reddington Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Aiden Devitt Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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David Lappin Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Francis M Finucane Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Summary

We describe two cases of SGLT2i-induced euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis, which took longer than we anticipated to treat despite initiation of our DKA protocol. Both patients had an unequivocal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, had poor glycaemic control with a history of metformin intolerance and presented with relatively vague symptoms post-operatively. Neither patient had stopped their SGLT2i pre-operatively, but ought to have by current treatment guidelines.

Learning points:

  • SGLT2i-induced EDKA is a more protracted and prolonged metabolic derangement and takes approximately twice as long to treat as hyperglycaemic ketoacidosis.

  • Surgical patients ought to stop SGLT2i medications routinely pre-operatively and only resume them after they have made a full recovery from the operation.

  • While the mechanistic basis for EDKA remains unclear, our observation of marked ketonuria in both patients suggests that impaired ketone excretion may not be the predominant metabolic lesion in every case.

  • Measurement of insulin, C-Peptide, blood and urine ketones as well as glucagon and renal function at the time of initial presentation with EDKA may help to establish why this problem occurs in specific patients.

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Clarissa Ern Hui Fang Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Mohammed Faraz Rafey Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Aine Cunningham Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland

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Sean F Dinneen Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Francis M Finucane Bariatric Medicine Service, Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland
HRB Clinical Research Facility, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

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Summary

A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria. Blood results were consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with hyperosmolar state. We initiated our DKA protocol, with intravenous insulin, fluids and potassium, and we discontinued risperidone. His obesity, family history of T2DM, acanthosis nigricans and hyperosmolar state prompted consideration of T2DM presenting with ‘ketosis-prone diabetes’ (KPD) rather than T1DM. Antibody markers of beta-cell autoimmunity were subsequently negative. Four weeks later, he had modified his diet and lost weight, and his metabolic parameters had normalised. We reduced his total daily insulin dose from 35 to 18 units and introduced metformin. We stopped insulin completely by week 7. At 6 months, his glucometer readings and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level had normalised.

Learning points:

  • Risperidone-induced diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is not synonymous with type 1 diabetes, even in young white patients and may be a manifestation of ‘ketosis-prone’ type 2 diabetes (KPD).

  • KPD is often only confirmed after the initial presentation, when islet autoimmunity and cautious phasing out of insulin therapy have been assessed, and emergency DKA management remains the same.

  • As in other cases of KPD, a family history of T2DM and presence of cutaneous markers of insulin resistance were important clinical features suggestive of an alternative aetiology for DKA.

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Athanasios Fountas Departments of Endocrinology

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Zoe Giotaki Departments of Endocrinology

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Evangelia Dounousi Nephrology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece

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George Liapis Nephrology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece

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Alexandra Bargiota Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece

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Agathocles Tsatsoulis Departments of Endocrinology

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Stelios Tigas Departments of Endocrinology

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Summary

Proteinuric renal disease is prevalent in congenital or acquired forms of generalized lipodystrophy. In contrast, an association between familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and renal disease has been documented in very few cases. A 22-year-old female patient presented with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hirsutism and oligomenorrhea. On examination, there was partial loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the face, upper and lower limbs, bird-like facies with micrognathia and low set ears and mild acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism, hyperlipidemia, elevated serum creatine kinase and mild proteinuria. A clinical diagnosis of FPLD of the non-Dunnigan variety was made; genetic testing revealed a heterozygous c.1045C > T mutation in exon 6 of the LMNA gene, predicted to result in an abnormal LMNA protein (p.R349W). Electromyography and muscle biopsy were suggestive of non-specific myopathy. Treatment with metformin and later with pioglitazone was initiated. Due to worsening proteinuria, a renal biopsy was performed; histological findings were consistent with mild focal glomerular mesangioproliferative changes, and the patient was started on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. This is the fourth report of FPLD associated with the c.1045C > T missense LMNA mutation and the second with co-existent proteinuric renal disease. Patients carrying this specific mutation may exhibit a phenotype that includes partial lipodystrophy, proteinuric nephropathy, cardiomyopathy and atypical myopathy.

Learning points:

  • Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by the complete or partial loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

  • Proteinuric renal disease is a prevalent feature of generalized lipodystrophy but rare in familial partial lipodystrophy.

  • Patients carrying the c.1045C > T missense LMNA mutation (p.R349W) may present with familial partial lipodystrophy, proteinuric nephropathy, cardiomyopathy and atypical myopathy.

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Cliona Small HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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Aoife M Egan HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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El Muntasir Elhadi HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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Michael W O’Reilly HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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Aine Cunningham HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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Francis M Finucane HRB Clinical Research Facility, Galway University Hospitals, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

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Summary

We describe three patients presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to ketosis prone type 2, rather than type 1 diabetes. All patients were treated according to a standard DKA protocol, but were subsequently able to come off insulin therapy while maintaining good glycaemic control. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) presenting with DKA has not been described previously in Irish patients. The absence of islet autoimmunity and evidence of endogenous beta cell function after resolution of DKA are well-established markers of KPD, but are not readily available in the acute setting. Although not emphasised in any current guidelines, we have found that a strong family history of type 2 diabetes and the presence of cutaneous markers of insulin resistance are strongly suggestive of KPD. These could be emphasised in future clinical practice guidelines.

Learning points:

  • Even in white patients, DKA is not synonymous with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune beta cell failure. KPD needs to be considered in all patients presenting with DKA, even though it will not influence their initial treatment.

  • Aside from markers of endogenous beta cell function and islet autoimmunity, which in any case are unlikely to be immediately available to clinicians, consideration of family history of type 2 diabetes and cutaneous markers of insulin resistance might help to identify those with KPD and are more readily apparent in the acute setting, though not emphasised in guidelines.

  • Consideration of KPD should never alter the management of the acute severe metabolic derangement of DKA, and phasing out of insulin therapy requires frequent attendance and meticulous and cautious surveillance by a team of experienced diabetes care providers.

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Katia Regina Marchetti Department of General Medicine

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Maria Adelaide Albergaria Pereira Department of Endocrinology, Clinics Hospital, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

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Arnaldo Lichtenstein Department of General Medicine

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Edison Ferreira Paiva Department of General Medicine

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Summary

Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL), greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL), slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL) and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3). CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio).

Learning points:

  • Hypoglycemyndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by adrenal tumors is a rare condition.

  • Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia associated with hyperandrogenism and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis suggests hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor.

  • Hypoglycemia in cases of NICTH should be treated with glucocorticoids, glucagon, somatostatin analogs and hGH.

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Yael R Nobel Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, 10032, USA

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Maya B Lodish Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Margarita Raygada Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Jaydira Del Rivero Medical Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 12N-226, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA

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Fabio R Faucz Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Smita B Abraham Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Charalampos Lyssikatos Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Elena Belyavskaya Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Constantine A Stratakis Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Mihail Zilbermint Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, BG 10-CRC, Room 1-3216, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Baltimore, Maryland, 21287, USA
Suburban Hospital, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA

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Summary

Autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare disorder characterized by sodium wasting, failure to thrive, hyperkalemia, hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis. It is due to mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and is characterized by diminished response to aldosterone. Patients may present with life-threatening hyperkalemia, which must be recognized and appropriately treated. A 32-year-old female was referred to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for evaluation of hyperkalemia and muscle pain. Her condition started in the second week of life, when she was brought to an outside hospital lethargic and unresponsive. At that time, she was hypovolemic, hyperkalemic and acidotic, and was eventually treated with sodium bicarbonate and potassium chelation. At the time of the presentation to the NIH, her laboratory evaluation revealed serum potassium 5.1 mmol/l (reference range: 3.4–5.1 mmol/l), aldosterone 2800 ng/dl (reference range: ≤21 ng/dl) and plasma renin activity 90 ng/ml/h (reference range: 0.6–4.3 ng/ml per h). Diagnosis of PHA1 was suspected. Sequencing of the SCNN1B gene, which codes for ENaC, revealed that the patient is a compound heterozygote for two novel variants (c.1288delC and c.1466+1 G>A), confirming the suspected diagnosis of PHA1. In conclusion, we report a patient with novel variants of the SCNN1B gene causing PHA1 with persistent, symptomatic hyperkalemia.

Learning points

  • PHA1 is a rare genetic condition, causing functional abnormalities of the amiloride-sensitive ENaC.

  • PHA1 was caused by previously unreported SCNN1B gene mutations (c.1288delC and c.1466+1 G>A).

  • Early recognition of this condition and adherence to symptomatic therapy is important, as the electrolyte abnormalities found may lead to severe dehydration, cardiac arrhythmias and even death.

  • High doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate, sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are required for symptomatic treatment.

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Nishant Raizada Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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S H Rahaman Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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D Kandasamy Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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V P Jyotsna Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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Summary

Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a rare cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia, which is known to occur in association with the use of sulfhydryl-containing drugs and autoimmune disorders. We describe a patient with hitherto an unreported association of IAS with ankylosing spondylitis. We have also performed and described a simplified method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation of an insulin bound antibody in the serum.

Learning points

  • IAS should be considered in differential diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia.

  • Ankylosing spondylitis can be associated with IAS apart from several other autoimmune diseases.

  • Very high serum insulin levels (100–10 000 μU/ml) are frequently seen in IAS.

  • When faced with very high serum insulin before suspecting insulinoma, it is advisable that PEG precipitation of serum be done to identify antibody bound insulin.

  • A clinical suspicion of IAS can avoid expensive imaging and unnecessary surgery in affected patients.

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