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Open access

Ilaria Teobaldi, Vincenzo Stoico, Fabrizia Perrone, Massimiliano Bruti, Enzo Bonora and Alessandro Mantovani

Summary

Honey has been used as a wound dressing for hundreds of years by ancient civilizations, but only recently it has acquired scientific interest because of its relevant biological properties. In the last decade, indeed, several trials and observational studies have reported that, compared to conventional treatment (e.g. antiseptics, polyurethane film, paraffin gauze, soframycin-impregnated gauze), honey dressings seem to be better in healing time of different types of wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, to date, information about a potential favorable biological effect of honey dressings on diabetic ulcers with exposed tendon are still scarce. Notably, foot or leg ulcers with exposed tendon are serious complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, as they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcome. Therefore, the use of effective and safe treatments to bring these lesions to timely healing is very important in clinical practice. We herein report the case of a Caucasian adult patient with type 2 diabetes presenting a chronic right posterior lower limb ulcer (Texas University Classification (TUC) 2D) with tendon exposure that was successfully treated with honey dressings (glucose oxidase (GOX) positive with peroxide activity) in addition to systemic antibiotic therapy, surgical toilette and skin graft. In our case, the use of honey dressing for treating exposed tendon tissue probably allowed the timely wound healing. Although further studies are required, such treatment may constitute part of the comprehensive management of diabetic wounds, including those with tendon exposure, and should be considered by clinicians in clinical practice.

Learning points:

  • Honey has been used as a wound dressing for hundreds of years, but only recently it has acquired scientific interest for its biological properties.

  • Several studies have documented that, compared to conventional dressings, honey seems to be better in healing time of different types of wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers.

  • Our case report is the first to highlight the importance to use honey dressings also for the treatment of ulcers with tendon exposure in patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that this kind of dressing should be considered by clinicians in clinical practice.

Open access

Alessandro Mantovani, Maddalena Trombetta, Chiara Imbriaco, Riccardo Rigolon, Lucia Mingolla, Federica Zamboni, Francesca Dal Molin, Dario Cioccoloni, Viola Sanga, Massimiliano Bruti, Enrico Brocco, Michela Conti, Giorgio Ravenna, Fabrizia Perrone, Vincenzo Stoico and Enzo Bonora

Summary

Vertebral osteomyelitis (or spondylodiscitis) is steadily increasing in Western countries and often results from hematogenous seeding, direct inoculation during spinal surgery, or contiguous spread from an infection in the adjacent soft tissue. We present the case of a 67-year-old white patient with type 2 diabetes who went to Hospital for high fever, back pain, and worsening of known infected ulcers in the left foot. Despite intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical debridement of the foot infection, high fever and lower back pain continued. Bone biopsy and two consecutive blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing serious osteomyelitis in L4 and L5 complicated by an epidural abscess. Contiguous or other distant focuses of infection were not identified. In this case, diabetic foot could be considered as a primary distant focus for vertebral osteomyelitis. Clinicians should consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a ‘possible’ diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by foot infection that is associated with fever and lower back pain.

Learning points

  • Vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing in Western countries, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • The primary focus of infection is the genitourinary tract followed by skin, soft tissue, endocarditis, bursitis, septic arthritis, and intravascular access.

  • Diabetic foot could be a rare primary focus of infection for vertebral osteomyelitis, and, however, vertebral osteomyelitis could be a serious, albeit rare, complication of diabetic foot.

  • Clinicians should keep in mind the many potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a “possible” diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers associated with nonspecific symptoms such as lower back pain.

  • Early diagnosis and correct management of vertebral osteomyelitis are crucial to improve clinical outcomes.

Open access

Jiman Kim, Eulsun Moon and Seungwon Kwon

Summary

Diabetic nephropathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of the capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. Herein, we report a case of a 62-year-old patient with a 30 year history of diabetes, who showed a substantial improvement in diabetic nephropathy on administration of 30 g of Astragalus membranaceus extract per day. After 1 month, estimated glomerular filtration rate increased from 47 to 72 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and was subsequently maintained at the 1-month follow-up. Urinary protein levels also decreased following treatment. Herein, we present and discuss the evidence and mechanism of A. membranaceus on diabetic nephropathy in this patient.

Learning points

  • Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are currently used to prevent and delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, their effects are not sufficient to prevent a decline in kidney function.

  • Furthermore, combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and an ARB can produce adverse effects without additional benefits.

  • In the early phase of diabetic nephropathy, administration of Astragalus membranaceus can be a therapeutic option.