Browse

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items

Takuya Higashitani Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Takuya Higashitani in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shigehiro Karashima Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Shigehiro Karashima in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Daisuke Aono Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Daisuke Aono in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Seigoh Konishi Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
Department of Internal Medicine, Keiju Medical Center, Nanao, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Seigoh Konishi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mitsuhiro Kometani Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Mitsuhiro Kometani in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rie Oka Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Rie Oka in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Masashi Demura Department of Hygiene, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Masashi Demura in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kenji Furukawa Health Care Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Kenji Furukawa in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yuto Yamazaki Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Search for other papers by Yuto Yamazaki in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hironobu Sasano Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan

Search for other papers by Hironobu Sasano in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Takashi Yoneda Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
Department of Health Promotion and Medicine of the Future, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Takashi Yoneda in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Yoshiyu Takeda Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Search for other papers by Yoshiyu Takeda in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Renovascular hypertension (RVHT) is an important and potentially treatable form of resistant hypertension. Hypercortisolemia could also cause hypertension and diabetes mellitus. We experienced a case wherein adrenalectomy markedly improved blood pressure and plasma glucose levels in a patient with RVHT and low-level autonomous cortisol secretion. A 62-year-old Japanese man had been treated for hypertension and diabetes mellitus for 10 years. He was hospitalized because of a disturbance in consciousness. His blood pressure (BP) was 236/118 mmHg, pulse rate was 132 beats/min, and plasma glucose level was 712 mg/dL. Abdominal CT scanning revealed the presence of bilateral adrenal masses and left atrophic kidney. Abdominal magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated marked stenosis of the left main renal artery. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with atherosclerotic RVHT with left renal artery stenosis. His left adrenal lobular mass was over 40 mm and it was clinically suspected the potential for cortisol overproduction. Therefore, laparoscopic left nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were simultaneously performed, resulting in improved BP and glucose levels. Pathological studies revealed the presence of multiple cortisol-producing adrenal nodules and aldosterone-producing cell clusters in the adjacent left adrenal cortex. In the present case, the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cortisol overproduction resulted in severe hypertension, which was managed with simultaneous unilateral nephrectomy and adrenalectomy.

Learning points:

  • Concomitant activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cortisol overproduction may contribute to the development of severe hypertension and lead to lethal cardiovascular complications.

  • Treatment with simultaneous unilateral nephrectomy and adrenalectomy markedly improves BP and blood glucose levels.

  • CYP11B2 immunohistochemistry staining revealed the existence of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in the adjacent non-nodular adrenal gland, suggesting that APCCs may contribute to aldosterone overproduction in patients with RVHT.

Open access
Sharmin Jahan Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by Sharmin Jahan in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
M A Hasanat Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by M A Hasanat in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tahseen Mahmood Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by Tahseen Mahmood in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shahed Morshed Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by Shahed Morshed in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Raziul Haq Department of Neurosurgery, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by Raziul Haq in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Md Fariduddin Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Search for other papers by Md Fariduddin in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) is an unusual type of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) that is silent both clinically and biochemically and can only be recognized by positive immunostaining for ACTH. Under rare circumstances, it can transform into hormonally active disease presenting with severe Cushing syndrome. It might often produce diagnostic dilemma with difficult management issue if not thoroughly investigated and subtyped accordingly following surgery. Here, we present a 21-year-old male who initially underwent pituitary adenomectomy for presumed NFA with compressive symptoms. However, he developed recurrent and invasive macroadenoma with severe clinical as well as biochemical hypercortisolism during post-surgical follow-up. Repeat pituitary surgery was carried out urgently as there was significant optic chiasmal compression. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue obtained on repeat surgery proved it to be an aggressive corticotroph adenoma. Though not cured, he showed marked clinical and biochemical improvement in the immediate postoperative period. Anticipating recurrence from the residual tumor, we referred him for cyber knife radio surgery.

Learning points:

  • Pituitary NFA commonly present with compressive symptoms such as headache and blurred vision.

  • Post-surgical development of Cushing syndrome in such a case could be either drug induced or endogenous.

  • In the presence of recurrent pituitary tumor, ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome indicates CD.

  • Rarely a SCA presenting initially as NFA can transform into an active corticotroph adenoma.

  • Immunohistochemical marker for ACTH in the resected tumor confirms the diagnosis.

Open access
Aoife Garrahy Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, Ireland

Search for other papers by Aoife Garrahy in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Matilde Bettina Mijares Zamuner Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, Ireland

Search for other papers by Matilde Bettina Mijares Zamuner in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Maria M Byrne Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, Ireland

Search for other papers by Maria M Byrne in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Coexistence of autoimmune diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is rare. We report the first case of coexisting latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and glucokinase (GCK) MODY. A 32-year-old woman was treated with insulin for gestational diabetes at age 32 years; post-partum, her fasting blood glucose was 6.0 mmol/L and 2-h glucose was 11.8 mmol/L following an oral glucose tolerance test, and she was maintained on diet alone. Five years later, a diagnosis of LADA was made when she presented with fasting blood glucose of 20.3 mmol/L and HbA1C 125 mmol/mol (13.6%). GCK-MODY was identified 14 years later when genetic testing was prompted by identification of a mutation in her cousin. Despite multiple daily insulin injections her glycaemic control remained above target and her clinical course has been complicated by multiple episodes of hypoglycaemia with unawareness. Although rare, coexistence of latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood and monogenic diabetes should be considered if there is a strong clinical suspicion, for example, family history. Hypoglycaemic unawareness developed secondary to frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia using standard glycaemic targets for LADA. This case highlights the importance of setting fasting glucose targets within the expected range for GCK-MODY in subjects with coexisting LADA.

Learning points:

  • We report the first case of coexisting latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) and GCK-MODY.

  • It has been suggested that mutations in GCK may lead to altered counter-regulation and recognition of hypoglycaemia at higher blood glucose levels than patients without such mutation. However, in our case, hypoglycaemic unawareness developed secondary to frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia using standard glycaemic targets for LADA.

  • This case highlights the importance of setting fasting glucose targets within the expected range for GCK-MODY in subjects with coexisting LADA to avoid hypoglycaemia.

Open access
Ahmad Haider Private Urology Practice, Bremerhaven, Germany

Search for other papers by Ahmad Haider in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Karim S Haider Private Urology Practice, Bremerhaven, Germany

Search for other papers by Karim S Haider in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Farid Saad Global Medical Affairs Andrology, Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany
Research Department, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE

Search for other papers by Farid Saad in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

In daily practice, clinicians are often confronted with obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients for whom the treatment plan fails and who show an inadequate glycemic control and/or no sustainable weight loss. Untreated hypogonadism can be the reason for such treatment failure. This case describes the profound impact testosterone therapy can have on a male hypogonadal patient with metabolic syndrome, resulting in a substantial and sustained loss of body weight, pronounced improvement of all critical laboratory values and finally complete remission of diabetes.

Learning points:

  • Hypogonadism occurs frequently in men with T2DM.

  • In case of pronounced abdominal fat deposition and T2DM, the male patient should be evaluated for testosterone deficiency.

  • Untreated hypogonadism can complicate the successful treatment of patients with T2DM.

  • Under testosterone therapy, critical laboratory values are facilitated to return back to normal ranges and even complete remission of diabetes can be achieved.

Open access
Lourdes Balcázar-Hernández Endocrinology Department

Search for other papers by Lourdes Balcázar-Hernández in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Guadalupe Vargas-Ortega Endocrinology Department

Search for other papers by Guadalupe Vargas-Ortega in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yelitza Valverde-García Anatomic Pathology Department, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Colonia Doctores, Mexico City, Mexico

Search for other papers by Yelitza Valverde-García in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta Endocrinology Department

Search for other papers by Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Baldomero González-Virla Endocrinology Department

Search for other papers by Baldomero González-Virla in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

The craniopharyngiomas are solid cystic suprasellar tumors that can present extension to adjacent structures, conditioning pituitary and hypothalamic dysfunction. Within hypothalamic neuroendocrine dysfunction, we can find obesity, behavioral changes, disturbed circadian rhythm and sleep irregularities, imbalances in the regulation of body temperature, thirst, heart rate and/or blood pressure and alterations in dietary intake (like anorexia). We present a rare case of anorexia–cachexia syndrome like a manifestation of neuroendocrine dysfunction in a patient with a papillary craniopharyngioma. Anorexia–cachexia syndrome is a complex metabolic process associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass and can occur in a number of diseases like cancer neoplasm, non-cancer neoplasm, chronic disease or immunodeficiency states like HIV/AIDS. The role of cytokines and anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides are important in the etiology. The anorexia–cachexia syndrome is a clinical entity rarely described in the literature and it leads to important function limitation, comorbidities and worsening prognosis.

Learning points:

  • Suprasellar lesions can result in pituitary and hypothalamic dysfunction.

  • The hypothalamic neuroendocrine dysfunction is commonly related with obesity, behavioral changes, disturbed circadian rhythm and sleep irregularities, but rarely with anorexia–cachexia.

  • Anorexia–cachexia syndrome is a metabolic process associated with loss of muscle, with or without loss of fat mass, in a patient with neoplasm, chronic disease or immunodeficiency states.

  • Anorexia–cachexia syndrome results in important function limitation, comorbidities that influence negatively on treatment, progressive clinical deterioration and bad prognosis that can lead the patient to death.

  • Anorexia–cachexia syndrome should be suspected in patients with emaciation and hypothalamic lesions.

Open access
Angelo Paci Pharmacology and Drug Analysis Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Angelo Paci in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ségolène Hescot INSERM U1185, Fac Med Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Ségolène Hescot in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Atmane Seck Pharmacology and Drug Analysis Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Atmane Seck in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Christel Jublanc Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, La Pitié-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Christel Jublanc in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lionel Mercier Pharmacology and Drug Analysis Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Lionel Mercier in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Delphine Vezzosi CHU Larrey, Department of Endocrinology, Toulouse, France

Search for other papers by Delphine Vezzosi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Delphine Drui CHU Nantes, Department of Endocrinology, Nantes, France

Search for other papers by Delphine Drui in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Marcus Quinkler Endocrinology in Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany

Search for other papers by Marcus Quinkler in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Martin Fassnacht Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Department of Medicine 1, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

Search for other papers by Martin Fassnacht in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Eric Bruckert Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, La Pitié-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Paris, France

Search for other papers by Eric Bruckert in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Marc Lombès INSERM U1185, Fac Med Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

Search for other papers by Marc Lombès in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sophie Leboulleux Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Sophie Leboulleux in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sophie Broutin Pharmacology and Drug Analysis Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Sophie Broutin in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Eric Baudin INSERM U1185, Fac Med Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France

Search for other papers by Eric Baudin in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Mitotane (o,p′-DDD) is the standard treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Monitoring of plasma mitotane levels is recommended to look for a therapeutic window between 14 and 20mg/L, but its positive predictive value requires optimization. We report the case of an ACC patient with a history of dyslipidemia treated with mitotane in whom several plasma mitotane levels >30mg/L were found together with an excellent neurological tolerance. This observation led us to compare theoretical or measured o,p′-DDD and o,p′-DDE levels in a series of normolipidemic and dyslipidemic plasma samples to explore potential analytical issues responsible for an overestimation of plasma mitotane levels. We demonstrate an overestimation of mitotane measurements in dyslipidemic patients. Mitotane and o,p′-DDE measurements showed a mean 20% overestimation in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, compared with normolipidemic plasma. The internal standard p,p′-DDE measurements showed a parallel decrease in hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic plasma, suggesting a matrix effect. Finally, diluting plasma samples and/or using phospholipid removal cartridges allowed correcting such interference.

Learning points

  • Hypercholesterolemia (HCH) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) induce an overestimation of plasma mitotane measurements.

  • We propose a routine monitoring of lipidemic status.

  • We propose optimized methodology of measurement before interpreting high plasma mitotane levels.

Open access
Ana Marina Moreira Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil

Search for other papers by Ana Marina Moreira in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Poli Mara Spritzer Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil
Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Search for other papers by Poli Mara Spritzer in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the condition of intermittent or permanent gonadal insufficiency that occurs in women before the age of 40. We describe three cases of POI referred to the outpatient endocrinology clinic of a university hospital. The three patients met diagnostic criteria for POI and were managed by specific approaches tailored to individualized goals. In the first case, the main concern was fertility and the reproductive prognosis. The second patient was a carrier of a common genetic cause of POI: premutation of the FMR1 gene. The third case was a patient diagnosed with a POI and established osteoporosis, a common complication of estrogen deprivation. This study reports the treatment and follow-up of these cases, with an emphasis on relevant aspects of individualized management, alongside a brief literature review.

Learning points

  • A diagnosis of POI should be considered in patients presenting with amenorrhea or irregular menses and high serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels before age 40 years.

  • Patients with POI without an established cause, especially in familial cases, should be tested for FMR1 mutations.

  • Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy is indicated since diagnosis until at least the estimated age of menopause, and is the cornerstone for maintaining the good health of breast and urogenital tract and for primary or secondary osteoporosis prevention in POI.

  • Fertility should be managed through an individualized approach based on patient possibilities, such as egg or embryo donation and ovarian cryopreservation; pregnancy can occur spontaneously in a minority of cases.

  • Women with POI should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular risk factors.

Open access
Betty Korljan Jelaska Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia

Search for other papers by Betty Korljan Jelaska in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sanja Baršić Ostojić Department of Radiology, General Hospital Sveti Duh, Zagreb, Croatia

Search for other papers by Sanja Baršić Ostojić in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nina Berović Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia

Search for other papers by Nina Berović in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Višnja Kokić Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia

Search for other papers by Višnja Kokić in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I is characterized by impaired production of glucose from glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis resulting in severe hypoglycaemia and increased production of lactic acid, triglyceride and uric acid. The most common type, glycogenosis type Ia, demands a balanced, sufficient carbohydrate intake to preserve normal 24-h glycaemia. Insufficient intake of carbohydrates can cause hypoglycaemia, as the missing glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme cannot free the glucose stored as liver glycogen and nor is gluconeogenesis possible. The principle means of handling this disorder is to avoid starving by taking regular meals during the day and night. Such a dietary regimen could lead to obesity. Herein, we present the case of an adult patient with glycogenosis type Ia suffering from hyperuricaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension. The accumulation of these cardiovascular risk factors could lead to the early onset of atherosclerosis, which should be postponed by contemporary methods of surveillance and treatment.

Learning points

  • Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring may be of value in every adult patient with GSD type I to evaluate the actual prevalence of eventual hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic episodes.

  • Good dietary management minimizes the metabolic abnormalities of the disease and decreases the risk of long-term complications.

  • Treatment of obesity in patients with GSD reduces the risk of earlier atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

Open access