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Geoffrey Chek Fei Yu Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong

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Ming-kut Tay Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong

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Sammy Pak-lam Chen Division of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong

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Mei Tik Stella Leung Division of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong

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Joanna Yuet-ling Tung Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong

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Summary

17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17α-OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report the case of a teenage girl with 17α-OHD who presented with delayed puberty, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypertension. We illustrate the clinical approach in workup, the subsequent management and monitoring of this rare condition.

Learning points

  • 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17α-OHD) should be considered as a rare yet important differential diagnosis of girls with delayed puberty and elevated gonadotropins.

  • Urine steroid profile, plasma aldosterone and renin levels should be assessed in adolescent girls with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, after the exclusion of more common conditions, e.g. Turner syndrome.

  • Inhibiting deoxycorticosterone (DOC) release by partial glucocorticoid replacement, counteracting DOC’s mineralocorticoid effects by antagonists (such as eplerenone or spironolactone) as well as sex hormone replacements constitute the major backbone in the management of 17α-OHD.

Open access
Bronwyn G A Stuckey Keogh Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

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James D Nolan Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

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David M Hurley Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

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Graeme B Martin School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia

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Summary

A 33-year-old man with Kallmann syndrome had received pulsatile GnRH as an infant for the treatment of cryptorchidism. As an adult, his treatment for fertility with gonadotrophins was unusually rapid compared with expectations, with a total sperm count of 25 million after only 12 months of gonadotrophin therapy. We propose that pulsatile GnRH treatment as an infant induced minipuberty and facilitated his successful, rapid response to therapy. We also propose that identification of the absence of minipuberty in infants with clinical signs suggesting congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) is an opportunity for intervention with pulsatile GnRH yielding benefits for fertility decades later.

Learning points

  • Absence of minipuberty in males with CHH results in low Sertoli cell numbers and delayed response to induction of spermatogenesis in adulthood.

  • Presentation with 'red flags' for androgen deficiency including cryptorchidism at birth, with or without micropenis, should prompt screening for CHH and minipuberty by measurement of gonadotrophins and testosterone in the first 2 months after birth.

  • Pulsatile GnRH therapy in patients with CHH, given prior to age of attainment of Sertoli cell maturation, can replicate the normal physiology of minipuberty, thereby priming the testis for future fertility.

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Sumeet Arora Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

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Olga Yeliosof Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Cohen Children’s Northwell Health, Staten Island, New York, USA

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Vivian L Chin Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, New York, USA

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Summary

Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with coexisting anosmia or hyposmia along with potential other phenotypic abnormalities depending on the specific genetic mutation involved. Several genetic mutations have been described to cause KS. The ANOS1 (KAL1) gene is responsible for 8% of mutations causing KS. A 17-year-old male presented to our clinic with delayed puberty and hyposmia, along with a family history suggestive of hypogonadism in his maternal uncle. Genetic testing for KS revealed complete exon 3 deletion in the ANOS1 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this specific mutation has not been previously described in the literature.

Learning points

  • Missense and frameshift mutations in the KAL1 or ANOS1 gene located in the X chromosome are responsible for 8% of all known genetic mutations of Kallmann syndrome.

  • Exon 3 deletion is one of the ANOS1 gene is a novel mutation, not reported before.

  • Targeted gene sequencing for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be employed based on the phenotypic presentation.

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Sue Sleiman Clinical Andrology Laboratory, NSW Health Pathology, Concord Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Feyrous Bacha Clinical Andrology Laboratory, NSW Health Pathology, Concord Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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David J Handelsman Clinical Andrology Laboratory, NSW Health Pathology, Concord Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Summary

We report the successful delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with frozen-thawed autologous sperm, cryostored for 26 years, the longest successful autologous sperm cryostorage reported. Sperm was cryostored for a 15-year-old boy at the time of his cancer diagnosis. Semen samples were frozen with cryoprotectant, using a graduated vapour-phase nitrogen protocol. Straws were stored in a large vapour-phase nitrogen tank until transfer for use. The couple underwent a single ICSI–in vitro fertilisation procedure using the frozen-thawed sperm with a transfer of five fertilised embryos, resulting in the live birth of a healthy baby boy. This reinforces the importance of offering sperm cryopreservation to men who have not completed their family prior to gonadotoxic treatment for cancer or other diseases. As practical, low-cost fertility insurance, it should be offered to any young man who can collect semen and it provides essentially unlimited duration of fertility preservation.

Learning points

  • Gonadotoxic chemo or radiotherapy treatment for cancer or other diseases usually causes temporary or permanent male infertility.

  • Sperm cryostorage serves as a practical, low-cost insurance to facilitate future paternity.

  • All men who have not completed their families and are scheduled for gonadotoxic treatments should be offered sperm cryostorage.

  • There is no lower age limit for young men who can collect semen.

  • Sperm cryostorage offers essentially indefinite duration for the preservation of male fertility.

Open access
Benthe A M Dijkman Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Christel J M de Blok Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Koen M A Dreijerink Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Martin den Heijer Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Summary

A 31-year-old woman with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) experienced breast volume fluctuations during biphasic hormone replacement therapy consisting of estradiol and cyclical dydrogesterone, a progestin. 3D breast volume measurements showed a 100 cc volume (17%) difference between estradiol monotherapy and combined estradiol and dydrogesterone treatment. Progestogen-dependent breast volume changes have not been reported in the literature. Our findings suggest a correlation between progestogen use and breast volume. Due to the rapid cyclical changes, we hypothesize that the effect is caused by fluid retention.

Learning points

  • There is limited reports available on the effects of progesterone on breast development and volume.

  • 3D imaging provides an easy-to-use method to quantify breast volume.

  • The patient in our case description clearly showed that cyclic progesterone use might induce substantial cyclic changes in breast volume.

  • In women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), monotherapy with estrogen or continuous supplementation of progesterone might be preferable over cyclic progesterone use.

Open access
Mami Kobayashi Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan
Department of Pediatrics, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Hideaki Yagasaki Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Kei Tamaru Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Yumiko Mitsui Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Takeshi Inukai Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan

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Summary

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is characterized by obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism. Hypogonadism is characterized by normal luteinizing hormone (LH), high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), low testosterone, low inhibin B, and relatively low anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Only a few cases of central precocious puberty (CPP) have been reported in PWS, and follow-up for CPP with PWS is not established. Hence, we present a boy with PWS accompanied by CPP. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy was started at 7 years of age, CPP was adequately arrested, and GnRHa therapy was discontinued at 11.3 years of age. Growth hormone (GH) therapy was started at 12 years of age due to inadequate growth. He grew close to his final height, and his testes developed with normal LH, increased FSH, normal testosterone, and reduced AMH corresponding to puberty at 13.5 years of age. The features of 16 patients with PWS with CPP, including our patient, were summarized. Out of seven male patients, five were treated with GnRHa, as well as four out of nine female patients. Out of 16 patients, 6 were assessed with pubertal development over 13 years of age. Pubertal development was considered to be restored in four patients who had GnRHa therapy discontinuation. We should carefully follow-up on pubertal development in CPP. GnRHa therapy is useful for adequate puberty blockage, and pubertal development could be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

Learning points

  • Pubertal development in Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) varies from hypogonadism to precocious puberty.

  • Pubertal development assessment based on clinical features and hormone levels is needed in central precocious puberty (CPP) treatment with PWS.

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy is useful for CPP with PWS, and pubertal development can be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

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Jia Xuan Siew Paediatric Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

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Fabian Yap Paediatric Endocrinology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

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Summary

Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0–4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0–17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed.

Learning points:

  • Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.

  • While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.

  • Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

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Mads Ryø Jochumsen Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Peter Iversen Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Anne Kirstine Arveschoug Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Summary

A case of follicular thyroid cancer with intense focal Methionine uptake on 11C-Methionine PET/CT is reported here. The use of 11C-Methionine PET in differentiated thyroid cancer is currently being investigated as a surrogate tracer compared to the more widely used 18F-FDG PET. This case illustrates the potential incremental value of this modality, not only in the localizing of parathyroid adenoma, but also indicating that 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential of increasing the pretest likelihood of thyroid malignancy in a cold nodule with highly increased Sestamibi uptake.

Learning points:

  • 11C-Methionine PET/CT and 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT often visualizes the parathyroid adenoma in case of negative Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT/CT.

  • A cold nodule in Tc-99m Pertechnetat thyroid scintigraphy with a negative Sestamibi scintigraphy has a very low probability of being malignant.

  • However, the pretest likelihood of thyroid cancer in a cold nodule with increased Sestamibi uptake is low.

  • 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential incremental value in increasing the pretest likelihood of thyroid malignancy in a cold nodule with highly increased Sestamibi uptake.

Open access
Fernando Gomez-Peralta Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain

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Pablo Velasco-Martínez Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain

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Cristina Abreu Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain

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María Cepeda Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain

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Marta Fernández-Puente Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General de Segovia, Segovia, Spain

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Summary

Methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) are widely used antithyroid drugs (ATD) that have been approved for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hepatotoxicity may be induced by these drugs, though they exert dissimilar incidence rates of hepatotoxicity and, possibly, with different underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with no relevant medical history diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease, who developed two episodes of acute hepatitis concurrent with the consecutive administration of two different ATDs, first MMI and then PTU. Given the impossibility of administering ATDs, it was decided to perform a total thyroidectomy because the patient was found to be euthyroid at that point. Pathological anatomy showed diffuse hyperplasia and a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of 2 mm in diameter. Subsequent clinical check-ups were normal. This case suggests the importance of regular monitoring of liver function for hyperthyroid patients. Due to the potential severity of this side effect, it is recommended to determine baseline liver function prior to initiation of treatment.

Learning points:

  • We present a rare case of two acute hepatitis episodes concurrent with two different consecutive ATD therapies.

  • Our results highlight the relevance of a liver function monitoring during the treatment with MMI or PTU.

  • A baseline assessment of the liver function before starting an ATD treatment should be recommendable.

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Carla Costa
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Cíntia Castro-Correia
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Alda Mira-Coelho Departments of Psychiatry

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Bessa Monteiro Paediatric Surgery, Hospital São João, Porto, Portugal

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Joaquim Monteiro Paediatric Surgery, Hospital São João, Porto, Portugal

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Ieuan Hughes Endocrinology and Diabetology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Addenbrook's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

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Manuel Fontoura
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Summary

The development of male internal and external genitalia in an XY fetus requires a complex interplay of many critical genes, enzymes, and cofactors. The enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3) is present almost exclusively in the testicles and converts Delta 4-androstenodione (Δ4) to testosterone. A deficiency in this enzyme is rare and is a frequently misdiagnosed autosomal recessive cause of 46,XY, disorder of sex development. The case report is of a 15-year-old adolescent, who was raised according to female gender. At puberty, the adolescent had a severe virilization and primary amenorrhea. The physical examination showed a male phenotype with micropenis and blind vagina. The Tanner stage was A3B1P4, nonpalpable gonads. The karyotype revealed 46,XY. The endocrinology study revealed: testosterone=2.38 ng/ml, Δ4>10.00 ng/ml, and low testosterone/Δ4 ratio=0.23. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal–pelvic showed the presence of testicles in inguinal canal, seminal vesicle, prostate, micropenis, and absence of uterus and vagina. The genetic study confirmed the mutation p.Glu215Asp on HSD17B3 gene in homozygosity. The dilemma of sex reassignment was seriously considered when the diagnosis was made. During all procedures the patient was accompanied by a child psychiatrist/psychologist. The teenager desired to continue being a female, so gonadectomy was performed. Estrogen therapy and surgical procedure to change external genitalia was carried out. In this case, there was a severe virilization at puberty. It is speculated to be due to a partial activity of 17βHSD3 in the testicles and/or extratesticular ability to convert Δ4 to testosterone by 17βHSD5. Prenatal exposure of the brain to androgens has increasingly been put forward as a critical factor in gender identity development, but in this case the social factor was more important for the gender assignment.

Learning points

  • In this case, we highlight the late diagnosis, probably because the patient belongs to a poor family without proper primary medical care.

  • We emphasize the psychological and social aspects in the sex assignment decision.

Open access