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Open access

Syed Ali Imran, Khaled A Aldahmani, Lynette Penney, Sidney E Croul, David B Clarke, David M Collier, Donato Iacovazzo, and Márta Korbonits


Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy.

Learning points:

  • Typical presentation for a patient with AIP mutation with excess growth and eunuchoid proportions.

  • Unusual, previously not described AIP variant with loss of the stop codon.

  • Phenocopy may occur in families with a disease-causing germline mutation.

Open access

M Lockhart, E Ali, M Mustafa, W Tormey, S Sreenan, A Saaed, and JH McDermott


A patient treated with intramuscular testosterone replacement therapy for primary hypogonadism developed blurred vision shortly after receiving his testosterone injection. The symptom resolved over subsequent weeks and recurred after his next injection. A diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) was confirmed following ophthalmology review. A decision was made to change the patient’s testosterone regime from this 12-weekly intramuscular injection to a daily topical testosterone gel, given the possibility that peak blood levels of testosterone following intramuscular injection were causing his ocular complaint. His CSR did not recur after this change in treatment. CSR secondary to testosterone therapy is a rare finding but has been reported previously in the literature.

Learning Points

  • Blurred vision in patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) should prompt an ophthalmology review.

  • The potential for reduced risk of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) with daily transdermal testosterone remains a matter of conjecture.

  • CSR is a rare potential side effect of TRT.