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Michael Dick and Michael Croxson

Summary

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a rare condition defined by the presence of autoimmune primary adrenal insufficiency along with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type-I diabetes. Onset of these conditions will usually be separated by several years, though in rare instances it can occur simultaneously. This syndrome can also be associated with various non-endocrine autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo and alopecia. Coeliac disease is less commonly associated with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II and is more commonly associated with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III. Here we describe an interesting case of a young male presenting with simultaneous manifestation of Addison’s disease and Graves, with coincident asymptomatic coeliac disease, as a rare manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II.

Learning points:

  • Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is rare, has female predominance, and peak onset in the third and fourth decades of life.
  • Onset of Addison’s disease will usually precede or follow onset of type-I diabetes or autoimmune thyroid disease by several years in this syndrome.
  • Simultaneous onset can occur, as in this case.
  • Coeliac disease is uncommonly associated with this syndrome.
  • Coeliac disease is more commonly associated with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III.
  • Coeliac disease should be screened for in patients with associated autoimmune conditions, such as type-I diabetes or autoimmune thyroid disease.