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Janani Devaraja, Sarah Sloan, Vicki Lee, and Paul Dimitri

Summary

An 11-year-old girl presented with acute lower limb weakness, dehydration, hypernatraemia and secondary rhabdomyolysis on a background of an 8-month history of polyuria. Radiological investigations revealed a suprasellar tumour which was diagnosed on biopsy as a non-metastatic germinoma. Further endocrinological investigations confirmed panhypopituitarism and she commenced desmopressin, hydrocortisone and thyroxine. Her chemotherapeutic regime consisted of etoposide, carboplatin and ifosfamide, the latter of which required 4 litres of hyperhydration therapy daily. During the first course of ifosfamide, titration of oral desmopressin was trialled but this resulted in erratic sodium control leading to disorientation. Based on limited literature, we then trialled an arginine-vasopressin (AVP) infusion. A sliding scale was developed to adjust the AVP dose, with an aim to achieve a urine output of 3–4 mL/kg/h. During the second course of ifosamide, AVP infusion was commenced at the outset and tighter control of urine output and sodium levels was achieved. In conclusion, we found that an AVP infusion during hyperhydration therapy was required to achieve eunatraemia in a patient with cranial diabetes insipidus. Developing an AVP sliding scale requires individual variation; further reports/case series are required to underpin practice.

Learning points

Open access

Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Veejay Bagga, Stephen B Wharton, Daniel J Connolly, Saurabh Sinha, and Paul J Dimitri

Summary

Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process.

Learning points

  • XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.
  • XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal arrest in adolescents. In adults, the presentation may vary.
  • A combination of hypopituitarism and mixed signal intensity lesion on MRI is suggestive of XGH and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.
  • Radical surgery is the treatment of choice and carries an excellent prognosis with no recurrence.