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Open access

Mads Ryø Jochumsen, Peter Iversen and Anne Kirstine Arveschoug

Summary

A case of follicular thyroid cancer with intense focal Methionine uptake on 11C-Methionine PET/CT is reported here. The use of 11C-Methionine PET in differentiated thyroid cancer is currently being investigated as a surrogate tracer compared to the more widely used 18F-FDG PET. This case illustrates the potential incremental value of this modality, not only in the localizing of parathyroid adenoma, but also indicating that 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential of increasing the pretest likelihood of thyroid malignancy in a cold nodule with highly increased Sestamibi uptake.

Learning points:

  • 11C-Methionine PET/CT and 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT often visualizes the parathyroid adenoma in case of negative Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT/CT.
  • A cold nodule in Tc-99m Pertechnetat thyroid scintigraphy with a negative Sestamibi scintigraphy has a very low probability of being malignant.
  • However, the pretest likelihood of thyroid cancer in a cold nodule with increased Sestamibi uptake is low.
  • 11C-Methionine PET might have a potential incremental value in increasing the pretest likelihood of thyroid malignancy in a cold nodule with highly increased Sestamibi uptake.
Open access

Thien Vinh Luong, Lars Rejnmark, Anne Kirstine Arveschoug, Peter Iversen and Lars Rolighed

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by the manifestation of tumors in endocrine glands most often in the parathyroid gland (PG). Treatment may involve several parathyroidectomies (PTX), especially in young patients, which increases the risk of postoperative complications. We present a 16-year-old patient with a family history of MEN1 syndrome. The patient started to show biochemical signs of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and hypercalcemia at the age of 10. One and a half years later a PTX was successfully performed with removal of the two left PGs. However, a rise in plasma parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium was observed 4 years later. Preoperative noninvasive imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy showed no definitive parathyroid adenoma. A 11C-methionine position emission tomography combined with MRI (MET-PET/MRI) was then performed and detected a focus posterior to the lower part of the right thyroid lobe. Intraoperative angiography with fluorescence and indocyanine green dye was used to assess the vascularization of the remaining PGs. The lower right PG was removed. The patient was discharged with normalized biochemical values and without postoperative complications. Recurrence of primary HPT is frequent in MEN1 patients which often necessitates repeated operations. Our case report showed that the use of advanced noninvasive preoperative imaging techniques and intraoperative fluorescent imaging are valuable tools and should be taken into consideration in selected cases to avoid postoperative complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case where MET-PET/MRI has been used to detect parathyroid pathology.

Learning points:

  • MEN1 patients will develop parathyroid disease, which eventually will lead to surgical treatment with removal of the pathological glands.
  • Preoperatively usage of MRI combined with PET tracers such as 11C-methionine and 18F-Fluorocholine are able to detect parathyroid pathology with a higher sensitivity than conventional imaging.
  • Techniques using intraoperatively angiography with fluorescence and florescent dyes allow surgeons to verify the vascularization of each parathyroid gland.
  • Optimization of noninvasive preoperative imaging techniques and intraoperative fluorescent imaging are valuable tools and should be taken into consideration when performing PTX consecutively in the same patient to avoid postoperative complications.