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Open access

Soham Mukherjee, Anuradha Aggarwal, Ashu Rastogi, Anil Bhansali, Mahesh Prakash, Kim Vaiphei, and Pinaki Dutta


Spontaneous diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare and under diagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. Clinically it presents with acute to subacute onset swelling, pain and tenderness of muscle(s) without systemic manifestations. MRI is helpful in diagnosis, exclusion of other causes and for localization of affected muscle for biopsy in atypical cases. Muscles of the thighs are commonly affected in diabetic myonecrosis (DMN). Here we present the summary of four cases seen in the last 3 years in a tertiary care centre with simultaneous or sequential involvement of multiple groups of muscles or involvement of uncommon sites. All these patients had advanced duration of diabetes with microvascular complications and poor glycemic control. Conservative management including rest and analgesics is the treatment of choice. Short-term prognosis is good but there may be recurrence.

Learning points

  • A high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of DMN which can avoid inadvertent use of antibiotics.

  • Acute–subacute onset severe focal muscle pain in the absence of systemic symptoms in a female patient with long-standing diabetes with microvascular complications suggests DMI.

  • MRI is the most sensitive test for diagnosis.

  • Muscle biopsy should be reserved for atypical cases.

  • Conservative management including rest and analgesics has good outcome.

  • Improvement usually occurs within 6–8 weeks, but there may be recurrence.

Open access

Pinaki Dutta, Anuradha Aggarwal, Yashpal Gogate, Uma Nahar, Viral N Shah, Mandeep Singla, N Khandelwal, and Anil Bhansali


We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in five cases of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), diagnosed at a tertiary care institute over a period of 15 years. The clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings of these patients along with diagnostic utility of IGF2:IGF1 ratio are discussed. The mean age of presentation was 52 years, with a male predominance (3:2). Three patients presented with recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycemia and it was detected in other two patients during hospitalization. Two patients had acromegaloid features that regressed following treatment. One patient had hypokalemia. Low levels of insulin, C-peptide, GH, and IGF1 were invariably found in all. The IGF2 level was elevated in only one patient; however, IGF2:IGF1 ratio was more than 10 in four of the five patients. The mean tumor size was 16.4 cm and mean weight was 3.6 kg. Four patients had mesenchymal tumors and one had epithelial tumor. NICTH is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 and IGF2:IGF1 ratio more than 10 is suggestive of this entity.

Learning points

  • NICTH should be considered in patients presenting with tumor of mesenchymal origin and hypoglycemia.

  • Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 is a strong biochemical evidence of NICTH.

  • IGF2:IGF1 ratio of more than 10 is a complementary investigation in the absence of an assay facility for IGF2.

Open access

Liza Das, Usha Singh, Bhanu Malhotra, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Pulkit Rastogi, Paramjeet Singh, Pinaki Dutta, and Sameeksha Tadepalli


Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation in Graves’ disease (GD). Additional/concurrent/synchronous pathologies may be present, especially in elderly patients who present with atypical features such as non-axial (or eccentric) proptosis, absence of lid lag and restricted superior extra-ocular movements. A 70-year-old female presented with progressive proptosis of her left eye and diplopia. She was diagnosed with GD a year prior and initiated on carbimazole. On examination, she had eccentric proptosis, restricted superior extra-ocular movements and a palpable mass in the supero-temporal quadrant of the left eye. Her T3 (1.33 ng/mL) and T4 (8.85 µg/dL) were normal with carbimazole. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-receptor antibody was positive (3.15 IU/L, reference range <1.75). MRI revealed an enhancing lesion infiltrating the left superior rectus, with concurrent characteristic muscle belly involvement bilaterally. Orbital biopsy showed atypical lymphoid cells (CD20+), suggesting marginal zone lymphoma. CT thorax and abdomen, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and bone marrow examination were normal. The patient was administered orbital radiotherapy for her localised lymphoma and carbimazole was continued. TED is the most common cause of orbital involvement overall and in GD. However, additional or alternative pathology may be present which requires evaluation. MRI can be a useful adjunct in these patients. Orbital lymphoma needs to be staged with workup for disseminated disease. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for localized disease. The index case provides evidence for synchronous presentation of dual pathology and highlights the importance of astute clinical examination as well as keeps a low threshold for MRI in selected cases.

Learning points

  • Thyroid eye disease can co-exist with other ocular pathology, especially in elderly individuals.

  • Eccentric proptosis, absent lid lag and restriction of eye movements (suggesting tendon involvement) should alert towards the presence of alternative pathology.

  • Orbital imaging using MRI not only has greater sensitivity in diagnosing radiologically bilateral disease in patients who have unilateral involvement clinically but is also useful to identify concurrent neoplasms.