Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare disease, as a total of 20 cases have been described in the literature. It is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue and by progressive growth that produces different degrees of compressive symptoms. Our aim is to present the case of a 36-year-old woman who consulted because of dyspnea caused by a multinodular goiter. She underwent surgery with the presumptive diagnosis of a malignant neoplasia, but the pathological examination of the surgical specimen established the diagnosis of thyroid lipomatosis.
Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare, benign disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue.
The pathophysiology of diffuse proliferation of adipose tissue in the thyroid gland is unclear.
Thyroid lipomatosis is clinically manifested by a progressive enlargement of the thyroid that can involve the airway and/or upper gastrointestinal tract, producing dyspnea, dysphagia, and changes in the voice.
Given the rapid growth of the lesion, the two main differential diagnoses are anaplastic carcinoma and thyroid lymphoma.
Imaging studies may suggest a differential diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis generally requires histopathological confirmation after a thyroidectomy.
IgG4-related hypophysitis is a recently described entity belonging to the group of IgG4-related diseases. Many other organs can also be affected, and it is more common in older men. To date, 32 cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis have been reported in the literature, 11 of which included confirmatory tissue biopsy and the majority affecting multiple organs. The aim of this report is to present two cases of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis occurring in two young female patients with no evidence of involvement of other organs at the time of diagnosis.
IgG4-related hypophysitis belongs to the group of IgG4-related diseases, and is a fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis.
It is more common in older men, but young women may also present this type of hypophysitis.
Although involvement of other organs is frequent, isolated pituitary disease is possible.
Frequent clinical manifestations include anterior hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus.
The diagnosis may be confirmed with any of the following criteria: a pituitary biopsy with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, with more than ten IgG4-positive cells; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and a biopsy-proven involvement of another organ; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and IgG4 serum levels >140 mg/dl and sellar mass reduction and symptom improvement after corticosteroid treatment.
Glucocorticoids are recommended as first-line therapy.