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Open access

Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, Veekij Veerasomboonsin, Soontaree Nakasatien, Sirinate Krittiyawong, and Thep Himathongkam


Primary amenorrhea could be caused by disorders of four parts: disorders of the outflow tract, disorders of the ovary, disorders of the anterior pituitary, and disorders of hypothalamus. Delay in diagnosis and hormone substitution therapy causes secondary osteoporosis. Herein, we report a case of a 23-year-old phenotypical female who presented with primary amenorrhea from 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis but had been misdiagnosed as Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome or Mullerian agenesis. The coexistence of gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH was suspected after laboratory and imaging investigations. However, the vanishing uterus reappeared after 18 months of hormone replacement therapy. Therefore, hormone profiles and karyotype should be thoroughly investigated to distinguish MRKH syndrome from other disorders of sex development (DSD). Double diagnosis of DSD is extremely rare and periodic evaluation should be reassessed. This case highlights the presence of estrogen deficiency state, the uterus may remain invisible until adequate exposure to exogenous estrogen.

Learning points:

  • An early diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSD) is extremely important in order to promptly begin treatment, provide emotional support to the patient and reduce the risks of associated complications.

  • Hormone profiles and karyotype should be investigated in all cases of the presumptive diagnosis of Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome or Mullerian agenesis.

  • The association between 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mullerian agenesis has been occasionally reported as a co-incidental event; however, reassessment of the presence of uterus should be done again after administration of exogenous estrogen replacement for at least 6–12 months.

  • A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for patients presenting with DSD to ensure appropriate treatments and follow-up across the lifespan of individuals with DSD.

Open access

Titipatima Sakulterdkiat, Kessanee Romphothong, Waralee Chatchomchuan, Soontaree Nakasatien, Sirinate Krittiyawong, Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, and Thep Himathongkam


Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition leading to the activation of and an increase in thyroid hormone secretion. Manifestations of hyperthyroidism in Graves’ disease can vary among people. In this case, we report a 24-year-old Thai man with a rare presentation of unilateral gynecomastia along with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed a 3 cm non-tender palpable glandular tissue beneath and around the left areola without nipple discharge and moderately diffuse thyroid enlargement with thyroid bruit. Thyroid function test showed a typical thyrotoxicosis state with elevated serum-free T4 and decreased serum TSH. His diagnosis of Graves’ disease was confirmed biochemically with a highly elevated anti-TSH receptor antibody. Early treatment with anti-thyroid medication was given first, followed by Radioiodine treatment (RAI) for definitive treatment due to high level of anti-TSH receptor antibody, enlarged thyroid and severe thyrotoxicosis presentation at a young age, which might not resolve by anti-thyroid medication alone. The patient responded well to treatment and achieved complete resolution of unilateral gynecomastia with clinically and biochemically euthyroid within 3 months after treatment. No recurrent gynecomastia was found during the 2-year follow-up.

Learning points

  • Characteristic of gynecomastia in hyperthyroidism is usually presented with bilateral progressive gynecomastia; however, unilateral gynecomastia is occasionally found as a presentation of hyperthyroidism.

  • Complete resolution of gynecomastia without recurrence can be achieved within a few months of treatment after thyrotoxicosis is resolved in patients with hyperthyroidism with the recent development of gynecomastia.

  • RAI for definitive treatment is recommended in young adult patients expressing very high anti-TSH antibody level with severe thyrotoxicosis.

Open access

Waralee Chatchomchaun, Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, Karndumri Krittadhee, Veekij Veerasomboonsin, Soontaree Nakasatien, Sirinate Krittiyawong, Sriurai Porramatikul, Ekgaluck Wanathayanoroj, Auchai Kanchanapituk, Pairoj Junyangdikul, and Thep Himathongkam


In this case report, we describe a 37-year-old male who presented with fever and tender neck mass. Neck ultrasonography revealed a mixed echogenic multiloculated solid-cystic lesion containing turbid fluid and occupying the right thyroid region. Thyroid function tests showed subclinical hyperthyroidism. The patient was initially diagnosed with thyroid abscess and he was subsequently treated with percutaneous aspiration and i.v. antibiotics; however, his clinical symptoms did not improve. Surgical treatment was then performed and a pathological examination revealed a ruptured epidermoid cyst with abscess formation. No thyroid tissue was identified in the specimen. The patient was discharged uneventfully. However, at the 3-month and 1-year follow-ups, the patient was discovered to have developed subclinical hypothyroidism. Neck ultrasonography revealed a normal thyroid gland. This report demonstrates a rare case of epidermoid cyst abscess in the cervical region, of which initial imaging and abnormal thyroid function tests led to the erroneous diagnosis of thyroid abscess.

Learning points:

  • Epidermoid cyst abscess at the cervical region can mimic thyroid abscess.

  • Neck ultrasonography cannot distinguish thyroid abscess from epidermoid cyst abscess.

  • Thyroid function may be altered due to the adjacent soft tissue inflammation.