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M Horsey, P Hogan, and T Oliver

Introduction Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PASs) are a heterogenous group of uncommon diseases defined by the presence of autoantibodies targeting two or more organ systems. Pernicious anemia (PA) was first described in the mid

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Andromachi Vryonidou, Stavroula A Paschou, Fotini Dimitropoulou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Vasiliki Tzavara, and Apostolos Katsivas

diagnosis was autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 2. Parietal cell autoantibodies were also positive, while ovarian autoantibodies were negative. Figure 2 Adrenal CT. A second serologic evaluation revealed positive ENA

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Shinya Makino, Takeshi Uchihashi, Yasuo Kataoka, and Masayoshi Fujiwara

Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a tissue-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the hair follicles (1) and is often associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) or autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The clinical

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Michael Dick and Michael Croxson

Background Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a rare condition with an approximate prevalence of 1:20 000 ( 1 ). It shows female predominance, with peak onset in the third and fourth decades of life ( 2 ). It is defined by autoimmune

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Joana Lima Ferreira, Francisco Simões de Carvalho, Ana Paula Marques, and Rosa Maria Príncipe

Background Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or Whitaker syndrome ( 1 , 2 ). It is an inherited monogenic disease, mainly in an autosomal

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Theresa Penger, Andrea Albrecht, Michaela Marx, Daniel Stachel, Markus Metzler, and Helmuth G Dörr

destruction of the adrenal cortex by cell-mediated immune mechanisms is rare ( 19 , 20 ). The occurrence of Addison’s disease with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus is known as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2) ( 21

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Laila Ennazk, Ghizlane El Mghari, and Nawal El Ansari

Background Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by an autoimmune process affecting at least two endocrine tissues, sometimes with one or more non-associated endocrine diseases. The

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Anna Kopczak, Adrian-Minh Schumacher, Sandra Nischwitz, Tania Kümpfel, Günter K Stalla, and Matthias K Auer

autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. We aim to sharpen our colleagues’ awareness about the clinical presentation of limbic encephalitis and establish autoimmune CNS disease as another potential clinical manifestation of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes. The

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Aishah Ekhzaimy, Afshan Masood, Seham Alzahrani, Waleed Al-Ghamdi, Daad Alotaibi, and Muhammad Mujammami

might have been positive in our case. CDI has been found in association with thyroiditis ( 11 ) or as part of polyglandular syndrome. It has also been found in association with histiocytosis X ( 12 ). DI was shown to be linked with other autoimmune

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Hiroaki Iwasaki

). Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is a unique manifestation of diseases characterized by the coexistence of at least two endocrine gland failures due to autoimmune disease in combination with or without those of non-endocrine organs (8) (9) . A