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Teresa M Canteros, Valeria De Miguel and Patricia Fainstein-Day

Background Severe Cushing syndrome (SCS) is considered an emergency that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment to lower serum cortisol levels. SCS has been mostly described in the context of ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) ( 1 ). The most

Open access

Shamaila Zaman, Bijal Patel, Paul Glynne, Mark Vanderpump, Ali Alsafi, Sairah Khan, Rashpal Flora, Fausto Palazzo and Florian Wernig

Background Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome and is usually seen in the context of small cell lung cancer, bronchial carcinoid or medullary thyroid cancer ( 1 ). Phaeochromocytoma is

Open access

Shinobu Takayasu, Shingo Murasawa, Satoshi Yamagata, Kazunori Kageyama, Takeshi Nigawara, Yutaka Watanuki, Daisuke Kimura, Takao Tsushima, Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Kenichi Hakamada, Ken Terui and Makoto Daimon

Background Cushing’s syndrome (CS) results from chronic exposure to excess cortisol production and secretion from the adrenal cortex. Hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis are common complications in CS

Open access

Sofia Pilar Ildefonso-Najarro, Esteban Alberto Plasencia-Dueñas, Cesar Joel Benites-Moya, Jose Carrion-Rojas and Marcio Jose Concepción-Zavaleta

Background Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a relatively rare disorder having incidence rate of 2–25 per million per year in the general population. Pregnancy rarely occurs during the course of CS because the resultant hypercortisolism can lead to

Open access

Ya-Wun Guo, Chii-Min Hwu, Justin Ging-Shing Won, Chia-Huei Chu and Liang-Yu Lin

Background Cushing’s syndrome results from prolonged, inappropriate exposure to excessive amounts of circulating free cortisol. Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is classified as either corticotrophin (ACTH) dependent or ACTH independent (1

Open access

Carlos Tavares Bello, Emma van der Poest Clement and Richard Feelders

Background Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 0.7–2.4 per million population per year ( 1 ). Clinical presentation varies according to the severity of biochemical hypercortisolism and its

Open access

Lima Lawrence, Peng Zhang, Humberto Choi, Usman Ahmad, Valeria Arrossi, Andrei Purysko and Vinni Makin

Background Cushing’s syndrome (CS) results in hypercortisolism as a result of excess glucocorticoid production from endogenous sources (adrenals, pituitary, ectopic) or exogenous administration. The incidence of endogenous CS varies from 0

Open access

F Serra, S Duarte, S Abreu, C Marques, J Cassis and M Saraiva

manifestation depends on the hormone produced by the paraganglioma and includes Cushing's syndrome (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)), hypercalcaemia (parathyroid-related peptide), inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome (antidiuretic hormone

Open access

Carine Ghassan Richa, Khadija Jamal Saad, Georges Habib Halabi, Elie Mekhael Gharios, Fadi Louis Nasr and Marie Tanios Merheb

Background Cushing syndrome results from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Pituitary adenoma is the most common cause of adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolism. In a minority of patients, ACTH is secreted by an

Open access

M J Trott, G Farah, V J Stokes, L M Wang and A B Grossman

Background Cushing’s syndrome results from hypercortisolaemia, can present with a broad constellation of symptoms, and is relatively uncommon with an estimated incidence of between 0.2 and 5 per million persons annually (1) . Early diagnosis