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C Kamath, J Witczak, M A Adlan and L D Premawardhana

Background Thymic enlargement (TE) is known to occur both in Gravesdisease (GD) and Addison’s disease (AD) and in myasthenia gravis. Its incidence is unknown as the thymus is not routinely imaged in them – TE often being diagnosed when

Open access

Alfredo Di Cerbo, Federica Pezzuto and Alessandro Di Cerbo

in APCs ( 9 ), the relationship between helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes ( 10 ), and the interaction between idiotypes and anti-idiotypes ( 1 ). Gravesdisease, the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, has been associated with the presence of

Open access

Julian Choi, Perin Suthakar and Farbod Farmand

unclear. Gravesdisease (GD) is one of the rare associated disorders. GD is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors induce high levels of thyroid hormone in circulation. Thyroid hormones are thought to

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V Larouche, L Snell and D V Morris

of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease, but it is the first time this phenomenon has been reported in conjunction with a diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism attributable to bilateral adrenal

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Hiroaki Iwasaki

-intolerance subsequent to the development of autoimmune diseases (1) . Graves' disease is recognised as a disease that involves both Th2-mediated autoantibodies and Th1-stimulated Tc cytokines (2) . The pathophysiological role of Treg in thyroid autoimmunity remains

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Wei Lin Tay, Wann Jia Loh, Lianne Ai Ling Lee and Chiaw Ling Chng

Background The coexistence of Gravesdisease and struma ovarii is uncommon, resulting in delayed diagnosis. While de novo Graves’ ophthalmopathy has been seen after definitive treatment of Gravesdisease with radioactive iodine, it is

Open access

Ehtasham Ahmad, Kashif Hafeez, Muhammad Fahad Arshad, Jimboy Isuga and Apostolos Vrettos

Background Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Gravesdisease are the most common autoimmune thyroid conditions and are more common in women than in men ( 1 ). Both conditions are characterised by symptoms and signs on the opposite spectrum of the

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Kingsley Okolie, Daniel Chen, Raf Ghabrial and Robert Schmidli

Background MNG, unlike Gravesdisease, is not an autoimmune disease and shares no direct aetiopathogenic linkage with GO, which is believed to be an autoimmune disease, possibly arising from the interaction of the TRAb and the receptors found

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Arshiya Tabasum, Ishrat Khan, Peter Taylor, Gautam Das and Onyebuchi E Okosieme

Background Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the orbits typically affecting women in their productive years of life ( 1 , 2 ). Affected patients suffer distressing and disfiguring eye disease with a small risk

Open access

Carolina Shalini Singarayar, Foo Siew Hui, Nicholas Cheong and Goay Swee En

. There was also a systolic murmur over the left sternal edge and a pulsatile hepatomegaly. There were no clinical findings to suggest an underlying connective tissue disease, chronic pulmonary or thromboembolic disorders. She was diagnosed with Graves