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C Kamath, J Witczak, M A Adlan, and L D Premawardhana

Background Thymic enlargement (TE) is known to occur both in Gravesdisease (GD) and Addison’s disease (AD) and in myasthenia gravis. Its incidence is unknown as the thymus is not routinely imaged in them – TE often being diagnosed when

Open access

J K Witczak, N Ubaysekara, R Ravindran, S Rice, Z Yousef, and L D Premawardhana

-genomic effects of thyroid hormones. However, in the longer term and if left untreated Gravesdisease, the commonest form of thyrotoxicosis, leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and death ( 1 ). Heart failure estimated to affect 16% in overt

Open access

Alfredo Di Cerbo, Federica Pezzuto, and Alessandro Di Cerbo

in APCs ( 9 ), the relationship between helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes ( 10 ), and the interaction between idiotypes and anti-idiotypes ( 1 ). Gravesdisease, the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, has been associated with the presence of

Open access

Maria Tomkins, Roxana Maria Tudor, Diarmuid Smith, and Amar Agha

Background This case report describes a patient who experienced concomitant agranulocytosis and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis as an adverse effect of propylthiouracil treatment for Gravesdisease

Open access

Julian Choi, Perin Suthakar, and Farbod Farmand

unclear. Gravesdisease (GD) is one of the rare associated disorders. GD is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors induce high levels of thyroid hormone in circulation. Thyroid hormones are thought to

Open access

V Larouche, L Snell, and D V Morris

of iatrogenic myxoedema madness following radioactive iodine ablation of Graves' disease, but it is the first time this phenomenon has been reported in conjunction with a diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism attributable to bilateral adrenal

Open access

Kara Alex-Ann Beliard, Srinidhi Shyamkumar, Preneet Cheema Brar, and Robert Rapaport

Background Graves disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism worldwide. The annual incidence of childhood hyperthyroidism is estimated to be 1 per 1,000,000 in children younger than 4 years of age without female predominance ( 1

Open access

Hiroaki Iwasaki

-intolerance subsequent to the development of autoimmune diseases (1) . Graves' disease is recognised as a disease that involves both Th2-mediated autoantibodies and Th1-stimulated Tc cytokines (2) . The pathophysiological role of Treg in thyroid autoimmunity remains

Open access

N Mohammadnia, S Simsek, and F Stam

, it rarely is the presenting symptom of primary hyperthyroidism. We present a case of Gravesdisease-associated gynecomastia. The pathophysiology will be reviewed, including some current insights. Recently the European Academy of Andrology published a

Open access

Wei Lin Tay, Wann Jia Loh, Lianne Ai Ling Lee, and Chiaw Ling Chng

Background The coexistence of Gravesdisease and struma ovarii is uncommon, resulting in delayed diagnosis. While de novo Graves’ ophthalmopathy has been seen after definitive treatment of Gravesdisease with radioactive iodine, it is