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Open access

Chrisanthi Marakaki, Anna Papadopoulou, Olga Karapanou, Dimitrios T Papadimitriou, Kleanthis Kleanthous, and Anastasios Papadimitriou

identified mutations, clinical and biochemical spectrum is variable (2) (3) . Despite the fact that CYP11B1 deficiency is the second more common form of CAH, no patient with this disorder has been reported from Greece. Herein, we describe a Greek patient

Open access

Nikitas S Skarakis, Irene Papadimitriou, Labrini Papanastasiou, Sofia Pappa, Anastasia Dimitriadi, Ioannis Glykas, Konstantinos Ntoumas, Penelope Lampropoulou, and Theodora Kounadi

reported in Greece. Case presentation A 33-year-old Greek man was referred to the Endocrinology Unit of a tertiary care hospital for the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of hypertension despite receiving antihypertensive drugs. His medical

Open access

Paraskevi Kazakou, George Simeakis, Maria Alevizaki, and Katerina Saltiki

Summary

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has a varying clinical course; distant metastases are frequently present even at diagnosis. We present two MTC cases with unusual metastatic sites. Two female patients are presented with slow progressive MTC. The first case developed distant metastases 23 years after diagnosis and underwent locoregional therapies. At the same time a breast mass developed representing MTC metastasis. Treatment with vandetanib led to long-term disease stabilization. The second patient is presented with metastases in the pancreas 13 years after diagnosis. Shortly, a painful mass developed in the mandible and metastasis of MTC was diagnosed. Disease progression was recorded 20 months after the initiation of local and systemic therapy. Such cases have only rarely been reported in the literature and highlight the need for prompt recognition of unexpected MTC metastases.

Learning points

  • Unusual sites of metastasis may appear in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) years after the initial diagnosis.

  • Although rare, unexpected MTC metastases highlight the need for prompt recognition and appropriate treatment.

  • Local recurrences accompanied by inappropriately low calcitonin levels should prompt further investigation for possible distant metastatic disease.

  • Systemic treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be effective even in patients with unusual metastases from MTC.

Open access

S Livadas, I Androulakis, N Angelopoulos, A Lytras, F Papagiannopoulos, and G Kassi

, liraglutide was not available at the dose of 3 mg in Greece and available studies in PCOS have used the 1.8 regimen. No other drug was prescribed to the studied subjects. None of the patients used metformin 3 months prior to treatment. Informed consent was

Open access

Michail Katsamakas, Eleni Tzitzili, Maria Boudina, Anastasia Kiziridou, Rosalia Valeri, Georgios Zafeiriou, and Alexandra Chrisoulidou

Summary

We present two cases of thyroid sarcoidosis that were misdiagnosed as thyroid cancer. In the first patient, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) of a suspicious thyroid nodule indicated the presence of papillary thyroid cancer, and the patient underwent thyroid surgery. However, histopathology identified a sarcoid granuloma, without any sign of malignancy. The second patient had a history of papillary microcarcinoma with suspicious lymph nodes diagnosed years after the initial diagnosis and was referred for assessment of cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) of the suspicious lymph nodes erroneously indicated metastasis from thyroid cancer, and lateral modified lymph node dissection was performed, based on FNAc and ultrasonographic features. Histopathology excluded malignancy and identified non-caseating granulomas. Sarcoidosis of the thyroid may have a clinical presentation similar to well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially when other signs of the disease are already present. In these cases, FNAc provided a false diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and lymph node metastases that led to unnecessary surgery.

Learning points

  • Sarcoidosis may share clinical and ultrasonographic features with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  • Fine needle aspiration cytology is helpful in the diagnosis of both conditions; however, the overlapping cytological characteristics may lead to erroneous diagnosis.

  • The present cases illustrate the importance of cytological identification of these difficult cases. Every piece of information provided by the clinician is essential to the cytologist.

Open access

Dimitrios Haidopoulos, George Bakolas, and Lina Michala

Summary

Turner syndrome (TS) has been linked to a number of autoimmune conditions, including lichen sclerosus (LS), at an estimated prevalence of 17%. LS is a known precursor to vulvar cancer. We present a case of vulvar cancer in a 44-year-old woman, who had previously complained of pruritus in the area, a known symptom of LS. Histology confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma with underlying LS. Vulvar assessment for the presence of LS should be undertaken regularly as part of the routine assessments proposed for adult TS women. If LS is identified, then the patient should be warned of the increased risk of vulvar cancer progression and should be monitored closely for signs of the condition.

Learning points

  • Patients with TS are at increased risk of developing LS.

  • LS is a known precursor to vulvar cancer.

  • TS women with LS may be at risk of developing vulvar cancer and should be offered annual vulvar screening and also be aware of signs and symptoms of early vulvar cancer.

Open access

Marinos C Makris, Konstantinos C Koumarelas, Apostolos S Mitrousias, Giannos G Psathas, Athanasios Mantzioros, Stratigoula P Sakellariou, Panagiota Ntailiani, and Evripides Yettimis

Summary

Until now, less than ten cases of extra-adrenal chromaffin cell tumors have been reported to be localized to the spermatic cord area. All published studies report benign tumors with a diameter <2–3 cm and no invasion of the testis. In this article, we present one case of a giant malignant paraganglioma in the testis of a patient who had initially been operated for a giant mass in the scrotum. The mass developed in approximately 4 months. This is the first study reporting the following findings: i) paraganglioma was found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord, ii) it was malignant with lung metastasis, and iii) its size was 17.5 cm×10 cm×9.5 cm. We present the first – giant – malignant paraganglioma. Moreover, it is the first case report of a paraganglioma in the testis.

Learning points

  • This is the first study reporting the following findings:

  • Paraganglioma found exclusively in the testis, invading the testicle and not the spermatic cord.

  • It is malignant with lung metastasis.

  • It is of the size 17.5 cm×10 cm×9.5 cm.

Open access

Georgios Velimezis, Argyrios Ioannidis, Sotirios Apostolakis, Maria Chorti, Charalampos Avramidis, and Evripidis Papachristou

Summary

During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient’s history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch), it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and migration during organogenesis.

Learning points:

  • Intrathyroidal thymus and parathyroid are commonly found individually, but rarely concurrently.

  • It is a benign and asymptomatic condition.

  • Differential diagnosis during routine workup with imaging modalities can be challenging.

Open access

Maria Pikilidou, Maria Yavropoulou, and Marios Katsounaros

Summary

We report a case of a female with hemihypertrophy, who developed five recurrences of pheochromocytomas until the age of 35. Timely follow-up of the patient's blood pressure assisted in early diagnosis and treatment of recurrent tumors.

Learning points

  • Recurrent benign pheochromocytomas should raise suspicion of a genetic syndrome.

  • A pheochromocytoma at a young age has a high propensity to recur and strict follow-up is mandatory.

Open access

E Rapti, S Karras, M Grammatiki, A Mousiolis, X Tsekmekidou, E Potolidis, P Zebekakis, M Daniilidis, and K Kotsa

Summary

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a relatively new type of diabetes with a clinical phenotype of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an immunological milieu characterized by high titers of islet autoantibodies, resembling the immunological profile of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we report a case of a young male, diagnosed with LADA based on both clinical presentation and positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs), which were normalized after combined treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4) (sitagliptin) and cholecalciferol.

Learning points

  • Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs) titers in young patients being previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetes (T2D) may help establish the diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).

  • Sitagliptin administration in patients with LADA might prolong the insulin-free period.

  • Vitamin D administration in patients with LADA might have a protective effect on the progression of the disease.