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Katsumi Taki Department of Internal Medicine, Fujiyoshida Municipal Medical Center, Yamanashi, 403-0005, Japan

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Takahiko Kogai Department of Infection Control and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan

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Junko Sakumoto Department of Infection Control and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan

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Takashi Namatame Clinical Research Center, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan

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Akira Hishinuma Department of Infection Control and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan

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reabsorption. Germ-line inactivating mutations of CASR cause persistent hypercalcemia with inappropriately normal or elevated PTH along with low urinary calcium extraction, which results in three phenotypes that are usually dependent on an apparent gene

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Nikolaos Asonitis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
Msc Metabolic Bone Diseases, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Eva Kassi National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
Msc Metabolic Bone Diseases, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Michalis Kokkinos National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Ilias Giovanopoulos National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Foteini Petychaki National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Helen Gogas National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Department of Internal Medicine, Laikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece

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Background Hypercalcemia of malignancy affects up to 20% of cancer patients during the course of their disease ( 1 ). The majority of cases are humoral in etiology and related to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) ( 2 ).The treatment

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Anand Gandhi Division of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona, College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Mike Mortensen Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Carl T Hayden Phoenix VA Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Sonie Sunny Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Carl T Hayden Phoenix VA Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Pawarid Techathaveewat Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Carl T Hayden Phoenix VA Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Jerome Targovnik Carl T Hayden Phoenix VA Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Mahmoud Alsayed Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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Background This case highlights the diagnosis and management of an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia that may often be overlooked by other more common etiologies. It may best be considered after more prevalent conditions that induce

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Arshpreet Kaur Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, 550 South Jackson Street, ACB A3G11, Louisville, Kentucky, 40202, USA

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Stephen J Winters Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, 550 South Jackson Street, ACB A3G11, Louisville, Kentucky, 40202, USA

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-significant changes in calcium and sodium levels (4) . We present a patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin who developed severe hypercalcemia and subsequent hypernatremia following excessive calcium ingestion and diabetic ketoacidosis

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Katsuo Tao Department of Pediatrics, Fukui Aiiku Hospital, Fukui, Japan

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Midori Awazu Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Misa Honda Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Hironori Shibata Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Takayasu Mori Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Fukui, Japan

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Shinichi Uchida Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Fukui, Japan

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Tomonobu Hasegawa Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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Tomohiro Ishii Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan

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dehydration. NDI can be congenital or acquired. Congenital NDI is inherited as an X-linked trait due to AVP receptor-2 ( AVPR2 ) gene abnormality or autosomally due to aquaporin-2 ( AQP2 ) gene abnormality. Acquired NDI is caused by hypercalcemia, hypokalemia

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Keerthana Haridas PGY2, Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai St Luke’s/West, New York, New York, USA

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hypercalcemia and hypercalcemic crises ( 1 , 2 ). Case presentation A 53-year-old male with past history of HTLV-1 infection-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and deep vein thromboses on anticoagulation presented with acute on

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Azusa Morishita Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Yasuo Hozumi Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Koibuchi, Kasama, Ibaraki, Japan

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Hiroaki Ishii Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Yukio Hokazono Department of Pathology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Clovis Manuel Yosei Kikuchi Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Megumi Shimasaki Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Mikiko Itaya Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Masaharu Oura Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Ken Kuriki Department of Pathology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Akira Hishida Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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George Seki Department of Nephrology, Yaizu City Hospital, Dobara, Yaizu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Background Parathyroid carcinomas (PCs) are often found together with hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Hypercalcemia is often more severe than that caused by parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, thereby causing renal

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Reiner Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Ulf Elbelt Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Manfred Ventz Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Knut Mai Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Tina Kienitz Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Lukas Maurer Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Thomas Rose Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Department, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Jens C Rückert Department of General Visceral Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Christian J Strasburger Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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Joachim Spranger Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité – Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, 10117, Germany

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) . Thus, large tumors and severe hypercalcemia indicate higher risk for parathyroid cancer. If parathyroid cancer exists, en bloc resection of the tumor with centrocervical lymphadenectomy is the recommended treatment. Nonetheless, cancer is not suspected

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Carine Ghassan Richa Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Medicine, Endocrinology Division, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
Endocrinology Department, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Khadija Jamal Saad Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Medicine, Endocrinology Division, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
Endocrinology Department, Mount Lebanon Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Ali Khaled Chaaban Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Radiology, Beirut Governmental University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Diagnostic Radiology, Radiology Department

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Mohamad Souheil El Rawas Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Medicine, Endocrinology Division, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
Clinical Endocrinology, Endocrinology Department, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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, nausea, vomiting, anorexia 10.4 a Hypercalcemia (12.8 a ) nephrolithiasis hypotension SVD 38 weeks hypercalcemia (11.6 a ) Not done medical therapy: calcitonin Lee et al . ( 3 ) 1 spontaneous abortion PP Acute abdominal pain 11.5 a

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E Mogas Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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A Campos-Martorell Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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M Clemente Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain

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L Castaño Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain
Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, UPV-EHU, CIBERDEM, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain

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A Moreno-Galdó Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain
Department of Pediatrics, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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D Yeste Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain

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A Carrascosa Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s University Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain

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Background Hypercalcemia is an uncommon clinical problem in pediatric patients. Etiologies vary with age at diagnosis, and include parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, mutations affecting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), hypervitaminosis D

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