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Marta Araujo Castro, Ainhoa Abad López, Luz Martín Fragueiro, and Nuria Palacios García

Background Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most common endocrine diseases, and more than 90% of the cases are due to benign causes (parathyroid adenomas (PA) and multigladular hyperplasias) and less than 1% are due to PC

Open access

Deep Dutta, Chitra Selvan, Manoj Kumar, Saumik Datta, Ram Narayan Das, Sujoy Ghosh, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, and Subhankar Chowdhury

Background Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon disorder with a prevalence of 4–30 per 100 000 population. It occurs most commonly in the sixth decade, with parathyroid adenoma being the underlying pathology in the vast

Open access

Lara Ulrich, Graham Knee, and Colin Todd

Background Spontaneous extracapsular haemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma without a precipitating factor is a very unusual clinical presentation. Thirty similar cases have been reported in the literature, the first of which was identified on

Open access

Elda Kara, Elisa Della Valle, Sara De Vincentis, Vincenzo Rochira, and Bruno Madeo

Background Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of hypercalcemia and is often caused by a single adenoma (85%) or four-gland hyperplasia (15%) ( 1 ). Functional cysts are less common etiologies while parathyroid

Open access

Marina Tsoli, Anna Angelousi, Dimitra Rontogianni, Constantine Stratakis, and Gregory Kaltsas

Background Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine disorder constituting less than 1% of parathyroid neoplasms. It is mainly a sporadic disease with a peak incidence in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Parathyroid carcinoma commonly presents

Open access

Jingjing Jiang, Mei Zhang, Ronghua He, Meiping Shen, and Wei Liu

Background Hypercalcemia is a disorder that most commonly results from malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism. Functional parathyroid cysts are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (1) and are often mistaken for thyroid cysts (2

Open access

Georgios Velimezis, Argyrios Ioannidis, Sotirios Apostolakis, Maria Chorti, Charalampos Avramidis, and Evripidis Papachristou

the 8th week). Among the notable organs that arise from these structures of endodermal origin are the thymus and the inferior parathyroid glands, both of which develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. In contrast

Open access

K Nadarasa, M Bailey, H Chahal, O Raja, R Bhat, C Gayle, A B Grossman, and M R Druce

Background Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) (1) . Mortality from this malignancy is normally due to complications related to persistent elevations in serum calcium levels as opposed to tumour burden

Open access

Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Ekaterina Pigarova, Ekaterina Sabanova, Elizaveta Mamedova, Iya Voronkova, Julia Krupinova, Larisa Dzeranova, Anatoly Tiulpakov, Vera Gorbunova, Nadezhda Orel, Artur Zalian, Galina Melnichenko, and Ivan Dedov

Background Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm with a prevalence of only 0.005% of all malignancies, and less than 1% among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The diagnosis can be challenging due to the rarity

Open access

E Mogas, A Campos-Martorell, M Clemente, L Castaño, A Moreno-Galdó, D Yeste, and A Carrascosa

Background Hypercalcemia is an uncommon clinical problem in pediatric patients. Etiologies vary with age at diagnosis, and include parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, mutations affecting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), hypervitaminosis D