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Milena S Pandrc, Stanko Petrović, Vanja Kostovski, Marijana Petrović, and Miloš Zarić

imaging studies (3) . The Japanese revised ‘Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of Autoimmune Pancreatitis’ (2006) contained three items: radiological imaging showing diffuse or segmental narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and diffuse or segmental

Open access

Noor Rafhati Adyani Abdullah, Wong Lok Chin Jason, and Azraai Bahari Nasruddin

change) was noted. The findings were supportive of pachydermoperiostosis. Based on the clinical, radiological and the histopathological features in the absence of GH hypersecretion, a diagnosis of pachydermoperiostosis was made. Figure 7 Radiograph

Open access

Aishah Ekhzaimy, Afshan Masood, Seham Alzahrani, Waleed Al-Ghamdi, Daad Alotaibi, and Muhammad Mujammami

, immunological, and radiological features in a large cohort of patients with central diabetes insipidus of known and unknown etiology . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2003 1629 – 1636 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-020791 ) 4

Open access

Roghieh Molaei Langroudi, Fatemeh Ghazanfari Amlashi, and Mohammad Hassan Hedayati Emami

Summary

Background: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) can occur following hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography facilitates diagnosis and monitoring of this syndrome. We describe ovarian sonographic changes in a hypothyroid patient with sOHSS after treatment with levothyroxine (l-T4).

Case presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and distension for a few months. On examination, she had classical features of hypothyroidism. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound revealed enlarged ovaries with multiple thin-walled cysts and mild ascitic fluid. On follow-up, abdominal ultrasound showed significant reduction of ovary size after 6 weeks of initiation of l-T4. Normal ovary size with complete regression of ovarian cysts was seen after 4 months.

Conclusion: Serial ultrasound in sOHSS associated with hypothyroidism showed regression of ovarian cysts and ovarian volume after 4 months whereas in other studies, it is reported to happen in various durations, presumably according to its etiology.

Learning points

  • OHSS can rarely occur due to hypothyroidism.
  • This type of OHSS can be simply treated by l-T4 replacement, rather than conservative management or surgery in severe cases.
  • Ultrasound follow-up shows significant regression of ovarian size and cysts within 6 weeks of initiation of l-T4.
  • Ultrasound follow-up shows normal ovarian size with complete resolution of ovarian cysts 4 months after treatment.

Open access

R Bou Khalil, M Abou Salbi, S Sissi, N El Kara, E Azar, M Khoury, G Abdallah, J Hreiki, and S Farhat

Summary

Methimazole is an anti-thyroid drug commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and is a relatively safe medication. Several side effects have been reported and usually develop within 3 months of therapy. Well-known adverse reactions include agranulocytosis, hepatitis, skin eruptions, and musculoskeletal complaints such as myalgia, arthralgia, and arthritis. So far, myositis secondary to carbimazole was described in the context of a lupus-like syndrome or other rare cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis. Methimazole-induced myositis occurring independently of such reactions was rarely stated. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism who, early after therapy with methimazole, developed hepatitis, eosinophilia, and fever that resolved completely after stopping the medication as well as a delayed onset of biopsy-proven eosinophilic myositis and fasciitis of gluteal muscles that resolved eventually without any additional therapy. Therefore, we raise the awareness regarding a rare side effect of methimazole: myositis.

Learning points

  • Several differential diagnoses arise when managing a hyperthyroid patient with muscle complaints.
  • Both hyperthyroidism and methimazole are associated with myositis.
  • Methimazole-induced myositis is a rare clinical entity.
  • Resolution of symptoms may occur after stopping methimazole.

Open access

Geetanjali Kale, Elaine M Pelley, and Dawn Belt Davis

Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management . Urology Journal 3 71 – 74 . Vick CW Zeman RK Mannes E Cronan JJ & Walsh JW 1984 Adrenal myelolipoma: CT and ultrasound findings . Urologic Radiology

Open access

Elda Kara, Elisa Della Valle, Sara De Vincentis, Vincenzo Rochira, and Bruno Madeo

Summary

Spontaneous or fine-needle aspiration (FNAB)-induced remission of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may occur, especially for cystic lesions. However, the disease generally relapses over a short time period. We present a case of PHPT due to an enlarged hyperfunctioning parathyroid that underwent long-term (almost 9 years) clinical and ultrasonographic remission after the disappearance of the lesion following ultrasound (US)-assisted FNAB. A 67-year-old woman with PHPT underwent biochemical and US examinations that confirmed the diagnosis and showed a lesion suggestive for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. US-FNAB of the lesion confirmed its parathyroid nature by means of elevated levels of parathyroid hormone within the needle washing fluid. At the second visit, the patient referred slight neck swelling that resolved spontaneously in the days after the US-FNAB. At subsequent follow-up, the enlarged parathyroid was not found; it was visible neither with US nor with magnetic resonance imaging. Biochemical remission persists after 9 years. This is the first reported case of cure of PHPT after US-FNAB performed on a hyperfunctioning parathyroid resulting in its complete disappearance over a period of 9 years of negative biochemical and ultrasonographic follow-up.

Learning points:

  • Spontaneous or fine-needle aspiration-induced remission of primary hyperparathyroidism can occur.
  • Both circumstances may present disease relapse over a variable time period, but definite remission is also possible even though long-term periodic follow-up should be performed.
  • Parathyroid damage should be ruled out in case of neck symptomatology after parathyroid fine-needle aspiration or spontaneous symptomatology in patients with history of primary hyperparathyroidism.
Open access

Soledad Bell, Gabriela Alejandra Sosa, Ana del Valle Jaen, and María Fabiana Russo Picasso

Summary

Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare disease, as a total of 20 cases have been described in the literature. It is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue and by progressive growth that produces different degrees of compressive symptoms. Our aim is to present the case of a 36-year-old woman who consulted because of dyspnea caused by a multinodular goiter. She underwent surgery with the presumptive diagnosis of a malignant neoplasia, but the pathological examination of the surgical specimen established the diagnosis of thyroid lipomatosis.

Learning points

  • Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare, benign disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue.
  • The pathophysiology of diffuse proliferation of adipose tissue in the thyroid gland is unclear.
  • Thyroid lipomatosis is clinically manifested by a progressive enlargement of the thyroid that can involve the airway and/or upper gastrointestinal tract, producing dyspnea, dysphagia, and changes in the voice.
  • Given the rapid growth of the lesion, the two main differential diagnoses are anaplastic carcinoma and thyroid lymphoma.
  • Imaging studies may suggest a differential diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis generally requires histopathological confirmation after a thyroidectomy.

Open access

Lara Ulrich, Graham Knee, and Colin Todd

Knee provided the histopathological images and C Todd provided the radiological images. References Capps R 1934 Multiple parathyroid tumors with massive mediastinal and subcutaneous haemorrhage . American Journal of the

Open access

Marta Araujo Castro, Ainhoa Abad López, Luz Martín Fragueiro, and Nuria Palacios García

. Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and giant parathyroid adenoma (GPA) are considered uncommon causes of PHPT. These usually present a series of clinical, analytical and radiological features, which are useful to differentiate them from the usual causes of PHPT